systèmes pour la conversion de mouvements et d'énergies renouvelables
& Pumps
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STIRLING's engines

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Principles Four times cycle Conversion of the motion System for variable valves' timing (VVT) System to regulate
the compression rate

As we already saw it, the most of the current motors do their gases exchanges with the help of valves actuated by a camshaft.

1. Primordial role of the valves in a motor

Since the nineties, the engines with 4 valves by cylinder developed themselves strongly, on the one hand to limit the pollution, on the other hand to improve the torque of the motors of about 25% (fig. III.20.). Some constructors as Audi even developed motorizations with 5 valves by cylinder, privileging the sportsmanship to the detriment of the cost to manufacure the engine.
Torque optimization by increasing of the number of valves
torque increasing according to gases exchanges design

couple relatif : relative torque        suralimenté: overfed        soupapes : valves
actuel / ancien : current / old        vitesse de rotation : angular velocity        t/mn : round per minutes (RPM)   

2. Analysis of the systems of current valves

             The current valves are facing 4 big problems :

Problem n°1: implantation of the valves in the high cylinder

Valves' implantation in the top cylinder
III.21. : Different mounting of valves :     1 and 2 : reversed,         3: in head        4 and 5: tilted:        6: stacked
· Solutions 1 and 2 (fig. III.21.) : lateral reversed valves
It is one of the oldest conceptions. It requires a lateral camshaft integrated to the motor structure. The flow of fresh air undergoes an important deviation and the rate of replenishment is decreased by the turbulence at the time of the intake, but not at the time of the compression, whereas the opposite is desirable. Besides, the length of the room encourages the detonation. Finally, there are sometimes fuel accumulation on the bottom points in the conduct of admission and it can brutally ignite  in an uncertain and uncontrolled way. The solution n°2 decreases the length of the room to limit the detonation, but it is to the detriment of the compactness and the rate of replenishment because drives the narrow duct reinforces the turbulence at the admission (intake). This type of room is used on the rustic motors because one can choose the diameter of the valves enough freely.
· Solutions 3, 4 and 5: valves in head
This disposition permits to separate the function "transmission of the efforts", devolved to the structure, and the one of aerodynamic linking with the outside, assigned to the breech. An adequate orientation of the motor permits to introduce fresh air and fuel by gravity, what avoids the points of fuel accumulation. The displacements of the valves can be parallel to the axis of the cylinder (3) or tilted (4 and 5). On the one hand, the solutions 4 and 5 permit a bigger diameter for the valves, what encourages the rate of replenishment, and on the other hand, they create a light turbulence at the time of the compression while hunting the air of the narrow zones toward the large zones while the piston is ascending. The solutions 3 and 4 can run with only one camshaft, contrary to the solution 5. This one, in addition to require to dig the piston to open sufficiently the valves without to entail a collision, is therefore less compact than the solutions 3 and 4. Currently, almost all the motors of cars exploit the solution 3 with 4 valves by cylinder and 2 camshafts.
· Solutions 6: stacked valves
The stacked valves have the same features that the solution 3 and in addition, encourage a strong turbulence at the time of the compression (same principle that for the solutions 4 and 5) while limiting the detonation with a very small combustion room at TDC, but the breech is costlier to manufacture and 2 camshafts are necessary.

Problem n°2: implantation and transmission of the motion of the camshafts

Numerous kinematics have been developed :

-         to transmit "globally" the displacement of the cam toward the valve (fig. III.22.)

Kinematics of valves' management

III.22 : mechanical strategis for distribution : 

a lateral camshaft and reversed valve        b : camshaft in head        c : lateral camshaft, pushing part, stem and tipper        d : in head camshaft and tipper

-         to improve the contact of the pushing with the stem of valve (fig. III.23.)

Some technological strategies of cam/valves connexion
III.23. Different designs of contact between the stem and the camshaft

No among them doesn't distinguish itself by its compactness. Otherwise, the games, distortions and the possible vibratory resonances of the intermediate parts make difficult the precise knowledge of the law of valves' motion. For these reasons, the camshafts in head are currently the more used. Let's signal that the camshafts with tippers introduce an additionnal part : to manage the tipper. permits to adjust the amplitude of the movement of the valve insofar as one can modify the point of pivot of the tipper (fig. III.24.). Some even more complex kinematics exist as the device BMW Valvetronic (Cf. 3.c, defect n°3) with 2 tippers.

Example of kinematics with variable motion of valves managed by a piloted crankiness

III.24. Managing of the tippers' lentgh by moving the joining point.

came: cam    tringle: stem        culbuteur : tipper        excentirité: crankiness

Problem n°3: to encourage the rate of replenishment

One of the biggest shortcomings of the current valves is the strangling that they lead to the level of te fresh air's intake just before the room of combustion. It is inherent to their design that permits a good tightness in closed position, but entails a turbulent out-flow at the time of the admission, ominous to the good replenishment of the cylinder, especially as the motion of the piston is fast. It is one of the reasons of the recent multiplication of the number of valves in order to increase the section of passage of the fresh air because several small valves are better that only one big valve, what is worth as well for the intake that for the exhaust.

Some parades are put in place as complex shapes of pipes of admission or deflectors to permit a whirling replenishment (fig. III.25. and III.26.), but non turbulent (the lines of field of the speeds of the fluid are all tangents to a helical).
Some stategies of fresh gases intake

 On the III.27 picture., one observes that the coefficient of air flow saturates quickly, even while opening the valve a lot. Besides, the big openings of valves sometimes oblige to achieve some necklines in the piston to avoid a piston / valve collision in beginning of admission or at the end of exhaust. One also notices that some shapes of the admission pipe encourage the coefficient of debit a lot, but such pipes are expensive to achieve in big series.

replenishment variation according to shaped of intake duct

One can show experimentally that while defining the number of Mach Z by :


D: diameter of the cylinder dS : diameter of the valve aS: celerity of the sound in air

Ump: middle speed of the piston during the admission:  middle value of the air flow coefficient

it is possible to know the rate of replenishment of the cylinder in fresh air with the help of the curve of the fig. III.28.

Replenishment rate according to Mach number Z at the intake's valve

III.28 Replenishment rate according to Mach number Z at the intake's valve

To bette realize the resistance of the valves against the penetration of the fresh air in the room of combustion, we are going to analyze the concrete case of a 4 cylinders 2 Liter non overfed engine with 2 valves by cylinder (one for admission (intake), another for exhaust):

-         cylinder of diameter 80 mm and stroke of 100 mm

-         intake valve of diameter 35 mm

-         speeds of rotation motor: 1000, 3500 and 7000 RPM

-         speed of the sound in air: 340 m/s to 25°C

-      : 0,4

 Let put N the number of Rounds per Minutes (RPM), on 1 revolution of the crankshaft, the piston does a round-trip of 200 mm with our hypotheses (two strokes). It makes it in one time of 60s/N either :

-         60 ms at low RPM (slow motion) (1000 rpm), of where Ump = 3,33 m/s

-         17 ms at nominal RPM (middle motion) (3500 rpm), of where Ump = 11,76 m/s

-         8,6 ms at high RPM, (fast motion)  (7000 rpm) where Ump = 23,26 m/s


What gives us :    Z1000 = 0.128,         Z3500 = 0.451,         Z7000 = 0.893

Even at low RPM, the rate of replenishment is only from 85 to 90%. More the piston is fast and more the situation worsens (more and more strong turbulences nearly the valve): at full capacity, it is only from 65 to 75%. 

Even though the increase of the number of valves and the overfeeding improve appreciably the rate of replenishment...

...the vocation of these strategies should be the optimization of the motor working

and not the correction of an inherent defect to the type of valves used.

Problem n°4: piloting of the laws of levee of valves

As one saw it, the current valves must be actuated by a camshaft. For different reasons exposed in the fig. III.29., it is necessary, in the ideal, to modify the laws of valves' motions while the motor is running, according to various parameters of which most important is crankshaft's RPM. For example, in slow motion, one advances the closing of the admission valve to inhale less air and therefore less to consume. On the contrary, to high RPM, one delays it so that more of air have the time to penetrate in the room. With regard to the exhaust, one can advance the opening at high RPM to hunt to the maximum of burnt gases or on the contrary, at low RPM, delay it to have a combustion in poor mixture and less to consume. One can wish to modify the displacement of the valve also: for example, weak opening at low RPM (still for less air to inhale, therefore less fuel to consume) and strong opening to full power. Another application is running on the Miller cycle by advancing to the closing of the admission, or delaying to the closing of the admission in order to admit a volume of fresh gas lower than the maximal volume of the room.

Advancing and delaying strategies for opening and closing the exhaust and intake's valves
Cam's profile's effect on the engine's performances

AOA: advance in opening admission (for slow RPM and/or nearly the TDC at very low RPM)
AOE: advance in opening exhaust     RFE: delay in closing exhaust       
RFA: delay in closing  admission (at high or low RPM)
Recouvrement: revovery: time when exahust and intake valves are simultaneously opened
Admission: intake,     échappement: exhaust.
PMH: TDC (top dead center)     PMB: BDC (bottom dead center)    

When the constructors conceive the motors where it is possible to achieve all these regulation for a working engine, they establish a cartography of the advances and delays as well as of the displacements of valves according to numerous parameters, whose 2 principals are the load of the motor (the torque to provide to the crnakshaft) and its RPM. The fig. III.30. regroups the main laws of valves' motions where the horizontal axis represents the angle of rotation of the crankshaft and the vertical axis represents the stroke of the valve's motion.

Usual law to manage valves' motionsLois usuelles de levée de soupape vertical axis: stroke of valve ; horizontal axis : time or angle of crankshaft
Some designs for law to manage valves' motions

Law 1: classical law frozen once for all : it is a compromise between the requirements of the fig. III.29. used in rustic motors (clippers, compressors.) or in the more powerful engines where the minimization of the costs is the priority goal.

Law 2: law with 2 constant delays with frozen stroke. Sometimes permitting to have an admission / exhaust recovery. If this recovery takes place, it is not adjustable.

Law 3: identical law to the law n°2, but the difference is that the delay is continuously variable. If the recovery of valve takes place, it will be adjustable. The liberty of regulating begins to really draw itself but  it is still limited. Yet, very few motors can achieve this law. The designs of BMW Vanos or of the Toyota Yaris (Cf. § 3.c) apply this law of levee of valves.

Law 4: law to continously delay the opening AND or to advance  the closing with constant valve stroke, feasible with the help of the Camless system (Cf. 3.c).

Laws 5 and 6: law to delay the opening (5) or to advance the closing (6), and with to variable valve's stroke as the delay to close (5) or to open (6).(feasible by Camless system)

Laws 7 and 8: law with constant valve's stroke, but to with continously delaying at the opening (7) or addvancing at the closing (8)  (feasible by Camless system).

Law 9: law of both strolke and wedgings continously variable, so much to the opening that to closing, feasible by camless or by system electro-hydraulic system like FIAT designed it many years ago. Wedgings and strokes are entirely managed and continually variable (fig. III.31.).

Schema of the FIAT electro-mechanical system to manage valves: Entirely piloting of wedgings and strokes.

3. What to notice in this state of the art? 

The 3 following points :

-        the current valves, solely actionable by the top of their stem, require systems of variable wedging of an important complexity for limited results (wedgings of about ten degrees for the crankshaft, variable displacement of about several of the millimeters).

-         The inertia of these systems is sometimes too high and the wished regulation is during several cycles the engine, corresponding to the double of crankshaft's revolutions : this is how the law n°4, a priori feasible by a Vanos, is not actually because it would be necessary that the system reacted in a very short duration in comparison to those of only one cycle.

-       It is not possible to maintain constantly in position a valve while the motor is running, however it can be useful to disactivate a cylinder (valves constantly open or closed). As already seen for the Cadillac Design DoD

4. Analysis of the alternative solutions

The systematic use of the current valves' systems would nearly lead to forget

that other solutions are existing !

with of course more or less of success... However, it is not not useless to study themselves because some among them present advantages that the previously described valves don't have.

With regard to 2 times cycle engines, the gases exchanges make themselves in a different way of the one of the 4 times cycles since during a fraction of the stroke, the piston is used to sweep the burnt gases and simultaneously to inhale fresh air. Also, the used valves are in general very different. The simplest valves are named" "Reed valve (fig. III.32.) and went up on the cover of the 2 times cycle engines. They are constituted of 2 tabs coupled or no  according to the sense of the air flow. 

Valve Reed for 2 times cycle engines

Sweeping in a 2 times cycle engines with a Reed valve at intake of the cover. It's opened in the sense of the air flow and closed otherwise

            They present the advantage not to require any mechanical piece of order, but this simplicity poses several problems :

-         limitation in frequency of the valves entailing a limited maximum RPM.

-         systematic and imprecise delay of the opening at the intake disfavoring the replenishment of the cover, and therefore of the cylinder.

-         systematic and imprecise delay of closing at the intake which result in the expulsion of a fraction of the fresh gases out of the cover.

-         impossible use to the periphery of the combustion rooms because : on the one hand, their tightness is insufficient, on the other hand, they don't support aggressive conditions of temperature and pressure.

The 2 times cycle engines frequently use a sheath including various lights of admission and exhaust (fig. III.32.). These lights are sliding along the cover or the stationary lights of the cylinder, what permits their opening and their closing periodically. The motion of the sheath is assured by a supplementary rod whose crank is in hold with the crankshaft, either via a gearing, either via a strap. The main advantage of this system is the speed of closings and openings of lights, what is encouraging a strong rate of replenishment. The drawbacks are :

-         An almost impossible regulation of the wedging and the sections for valves'opening while the engine is running.

-         An important mechanical power given by on the crankshaft to actuate the sheath.

-         A little efficient tightness of the sheath.

If we are now interested in the 4 times cycle engines, systems of rotary valves already exist, but are not really very spread. Practically no motorist industrializes these types of valves that generally remain to the step of prototype (fig. IV.15.). 

Rotary valves prototypes

IV.15 Rotary valves        a: perpendicular axis to the cylinder's axis        b: coaxial axes with the cylinder's axis (ASPIN Design)

Two alternatives have been considered: perpendicular of the valve's axis of rotation to the axis of the cylinder (a), or parallel (b). 

The 2 solutions present the same advantages and inconveniences :

· Advantages

big sections of passage of gases, pledge of a replenishment and an ejection of the very efficient burnt gases.

o variable wedging of the valves' rotation angle by report the one of the crankshaft with systems similar to the BMW Vanos or to the VVT of the Toyota

o very peed of opening and closing.

o precision of the instants of opening or closing because the mechanical games or the distortions of the parts have little influence on the lights' angle of rotation through which flows out the gases.

· Shortcomings

 o Necessity to use a conical gearing to transmit the motion from the cranshaft to the valves because their axes are orthogonal (a simple strap is not sufficient).

o Weak tightness of the valves, the least game or a light on the circular peripheries of the valves quickly damage the tightness.

5. Balance of the analysis

Even though one can consider the implantation on new SYCOMOREEN engines of most systems of valves previously described, we are going to draw up the list of the features of the ideal system of valves :


Feature n°1: harmonious integration of the system on the motor

Since the beginning, SYCOMOREEN seriously worries about the compactness of his engines : the valves can be mounted only on the fixed sides of the combustion rooms. It is necessary therefore :

1.      to have a flattest as possible system in order not to increase too much the motor's thickness.

2.      think about a mechanical connection with the output shaft the most compact as possible: a simple strap or a gearing must be sufficient.

3.      to need only a weak mechanical power to actuate the valves.

Feature n°2: to encourage the rate of replenishment

It requires the following conditions :

1.      sufficient tightness of the valves in closed position

2.      high peed of valves' closings and openings

3.      big section of passage for fresh gases

4.      reduction of the losses in the intake duct :

to reduce the number of direction changes for the fluid

o to encourage a non turbulent air flow : no obstacle on the main flow air..

5.      possible increase of the number of valves by room

Feature n°3: to pilot easily the laws of opening and closing of valves

Let's recall the fifth function of the specifications overview  :

Function Criterias Level Flexibility Commentary
5: To permit a big liberty of variable wedging of the valves  Amplitude of regulation for the wedging angle of the valve + / - 360° At least The variable wedging permits indispensable adjustments to respect the anti-polluting norms and to grant the power of the motor. It also allows to achieve the Miller cycle by an advance of the admission closing (reduced consumption)
Speed of regulation of the wedging 1 / 10 of the time necessary to 1 motor cycle in the concerned room  At more The variable wedging must be fast in comparison to duration of one motor cycle.
Independence of a room to the other Total independence of a room to the other / It is necessary to be able to adjust independently  each room   to activate / disactivate the combustion at will
Possibility to maintain a valve constantly in the same position while the motor is running Open, closed or partially opened All possible position In order to continuously plug / open the valves , what can have some applications to extinguish some comustion rooms and even to convert them into compressor in the aim of a compressed air storage for braking phases

None of the valves' systems of the § 5.a and § 5.b doesn't respect the conditions required by these 4 features simultaneously.


6. The "Soupape Anti-Erosion à Rotations Epicycloïdales" (SAERE) by SYCOMOREEN

6.1. Context and goals 

The invention is about a device designed to open and close periodically some pipes where gaseous, liquid or polyphasic fluids are flowing. The invention is an anti-friction epicyclic rotary valve (in French : Soupape Anti-Erosion à Rotations Epicycloïdales SAERE). The SAERE system is fullfilling all the specifications of the array below and is characterized by:
1.    a rotary obturator directly controlled by the rotary motions of epicyclic gearings,
2.    the obturator is rotating between 2 stops with ball-bearings,
3.   only one shaft of the epicyclic gearings allows to regulate continuously and at will both the times of opening/closing of the pipe and the area offered to the fluid which is flowing through it,
4.    some sculptures at the periphery of the rotary disc.

General view of an Anti-Friction Epicyclic Rotary Valve (Soupape Anti-Erosion à Rotations Epicycloïdales SAERE)

What gives the substantial following functionalities  :

1.    The lift and the phase of the valve are freely chosen by the angular command of only one rotary shaft, with big flowing area and without shock between the parts,
2.    The friction is very reduced and it doesn't erode the rotary disk meaningfully,
3.    The parts of wear are stops with ball-bearings and sealings, robust and changeable.
Exploded view of an Anti-Friction Epicyclic Rotary Valve (Soupape Anti-Erosion à Rotations Epicycloïdales SAERE)

6.2. Applications of the SAERE valves

    The present invention(SAERE) finds its use in any machine(MAC) where it is necessary to block periodically the out-flow of a fluid according to variable laws in phase and in lift, especially in the field of internal combustion engines where the phasing of the valves and the control of the amplitude of their motions are to major ways to improve the combustion : it raises the power of the motor(MAC) and/or reduces the consumptions and emissions of pollutants. For example, here is the implantation of 8 SAERE, (4 for exhaust, black collector, and 4 for the intake, red collector) on a 4-cylinders engine :

Variable Valve Timing (VVT) fully controlled in phase and in lift, with 8 SAERE for a conventional 4-cylinders motor

As showed on the views below and above, a central alley can be arranged
for the implantation of spark-plugs or injectors exactly in the center of every cylinder .

SAERE is compatible with the implantation of injectors / spark-plugs exactly in the center of the cylinders.

On the following schema are illustrated the SAERE systems which optimize to the maximum the flowing areas. We can see there that the maximum area of the out-flow can raise to 1/3 of the surface of one cylinder for the intake, and another 1/3 for the exhaust (the remaining 1/3 will preferably be allowed to the mounting of spark-plugs, injectors or pre-heating devices). SAERE has also the advantage not to deviate the fluid's trajectory, which is naturally attracted axially along the cylinder (whereas a conventional valve which deviates the out-flow at 90° and offers a very limited flowing surface) :
Maximum areas and SAERE's implantation on conventional engines with cylinders

Below, one under-sight of a typical 8 SAERE's arrangement for a 4-cylinders engine : 

Variable Valve Timing(VVT) fully controllable in phase and in lift independently for each room of combustion,
what is fulfilling  the specifications required for SYCOMOREEN's valves.

SAERE seen by under : the areas through which the fluid is flowing are big and along the axis of the cylinder. The VVT is entirely flexible.

Nevertheless, the present invention will find its use especially in the devices MPRBC and POGDC(not rotary). The SAERE device is an improvement of the system for variable valve timing both in phase and lift already used and very partially described in the patents "Machine à Pistons Rotatifs à Battement Contrôlé(MPRBC) du 19/12/2007" and "Piston Octogonal à Géométrie Déformable Contrôlée (POGDC)"du 19/02/2009. 

6.3. Detailed state of the art and the SAERE's novelty

 Synthesis of the state of the art

We will find a detailed state of the art concerning the technologies of valves (basic mechanisms and "Variable Valve Timing") in the SAERE patent and here is the synthesis from it in 4 points :

Point n°1: The rotary valves haven't completely defeated their problems of friction or tightness linked with their erosion. Nonetheless, they keep to be interesting as their rotary uniform motion allows a big flowing area for the fluid and quick opening/closing of the valve.
Point n°2 : The poppet valves are leading regardless of complex kinematics to actuate them. The flowing area is also very small.
Point n°3: The "Variable Valve Timing" (VVT) systems miss to regulate the phase AND the lift with only one actuator(CMD) ; moreover, the range of regulation are often limited to about ten degrees for the phase and some millimeters for the lift, sometimes with shocks between mobile parts.
Point n°4 : Very few VVT mechanisms use epicyclic gearings with 2 entries : one main entry(PRI) while the another one is regulating(REG).

La Soupape Anti-Erosion à Rotations Epicycloïdales (SAERE) [Anti-Friction Epicyclic Rotary Valve]

The invention is distinctly different of the state of the present art, as well by its mechanical structure that by its technical advantages. 

Anti-Friction Rotary Epicyclic Valve (SAERE) : Scraped and annoted viewIt is composed by (see above and below) :
* one pedestal(SOC) having an annular protuberance(PAN) inside which takes place the first stop with ball-bearing(BAB1) and on which are arranged some grooves for a circular sealing (SEGA,SEGB) allowing the tightness. The pedestal(SOC) has at least one circulating passage(LUM) around of which horizontal sealings (SEGC,SEGD) can distribute themselves,
* one rotary disc as an obturator(OBT) with peripheral sculptures(SCU,SCU1,SCU2…) to open and close without shock choc the circulating passage(LUM) pierced through the pedestal(SOC) and connected with a room(CHA). Some peripheral grooves are arranged for another sealings(SEGE, SEGF,SEGG) to get tightness,
* one cover(CAR) which is over the rotary disc(OBT) and pushing on it through the second stop with ball-bearing(BAB2) and one screwed or welded assembly on the pedestal(SOC), with an exchange passage(ECH),
* one epicyclic gearing at the top, composed by a planetary(PLA), satellites (SAT,SAT1,SAT2…) and a satellites' carrier(PST) and one crown(COU) : among (COU,PLA,PST), one is bound to the rotary obturator (OBT), the other is the main rotary entry(PRI) coming from the machine(MAC), and the last one is the only regulating entry (REG) via (CMD),
* any device to command(CMD) , able to impose for the regulating entry(REG) a controlled rotary motion : electric motor, gearing,, worm-gearing, straps, chain...
* one optional lubrication.

Anti-Friction Epicyclic Rotary Valve (SAERE) : annoted and in cut view

    The reached technical performances are :
-    valve with appreciably uniform rotary motion, big flowing areas and quick opening/closing without shock between the parts,
-    valve with very reduced friction, thanks to the 2 stops with ball-bearing and to the numerous rollings(RLT1,RLT2…) which grant very few dissipative internal rotary motions, even without lubrication,
-    valve with variable management fully controllable in phase and in lift with only one rotary actuator to choose among(COU,PST,PLA), and controlled by the commanding device(CMD).

Thus, the drawbacks of points n°1 and 2 are cancelled while the advantages are remaining. The VVT system, whereas the point n°3, needs only one rotary shaft angulary controlled by the commanding organ(CMD) : this command can use 2 ways :
-    the static way (fixed shaft): it controls the phase with the angular position,
-   the dynamic way (rotary shaft): it regulates the lift, thus the flowing areas for the fluid with the angular velocity ; it can even keep constantly opened/closed the circulating passage (LUM) while blocking the position of the rotary obturator(OBT).

Anti-Friction Rotary Epicyclic Valve (SAERE) : annoted and exploded views

6.4. Animations of the possibilities of a SAERE valve : the epicyclic approach

As the epicyclic gearing is a bi-mobile mechanism, the positions of his parts require to know 3 rotary motions : the rotation of the planetary(PLA), the one of the satellites' carrier(PST) and the one of the crown(COU). That is why an epicyclic gearing achieves an optimum in the set of a variable valve timing: as showed below, there is 6 combinations to allocate the roles "main rotation(PRI)", "regulating rotation(REG)" and "rotation of the obturator(OBT)" to the kinematic elements(PLA,PST,COU) of an epicyclic gearing. The main rotation(PRI) comes from the machine(MAC) and the regulating rotation (REG) comes from the commanding organ(CMD).

The 6 combinations to allocate the roles "Main", "Regulating" and "obturatorr" to the kinematic elements of an epicyclic gearing

The animations below illustrate the very wide abilities of variable valve timing fully controllable in phase and in lift of the SAERE system. :

advance and delay of the SAERE valve in red by rotating the regulating gear in black
advance and delay of the SAERE valve in red by rotating the regulating gear in black (main(PRI) in blue is static here)

Above and below have been chosen :
the planetary(PLA,black) as the regulating entry(REG),
the crown(COU,blue) as the main entry(PRI)
and the satellites' carrier(PST) as the exit bound to the oburator(OBT, red)
The control in velocity of (REG) can quickly block the SAERE 's obturator at any time and in any position.
With the control in velocity of (REG,black), SAERE can block the obturator(red) at any time and in any position.
 (completely or partially opened or closed).

Below,  the velocity of (REG, black) is modulated and SAERE can accelerate, slow down and even invert the motion of the obturator (red).
SAERE can accelerate, slow down and even invert the motion of the obturator (red)
It is possible by modulating the velocity of (REG,black) while (PRI,blue) keeps its uniform rotary motion
to control both the opening/closing times and the flowing area, and even to reverse the motion of (OBT,red). 

Below, we keep :
the planetary(PLA,black) as the regulating entry(REG),
the crown(COU,blue) as the main entry(PRI)
and the satellites' carrier(PST) as the exit bound to the oburator(OBT, red)
SAERE can bring a motion of "Geneva wheel" to the obturator
When the regulating entry(REG,black) is moving as a pendulum (with special parameters), SAERE is equivalent to a "Geneva wheel" kinematic,
that is to say fast rotations, always in the same sense, periodically ponctuated by stationnary steps,
allowing on the present application a full area opening with a maximum duration.

Below,  the velocity of (REG, black) is modulated : start from the stop to a maximum speed, and back to the stop.
Therefore, SAERE can accelerate, slow down, and even invert the motion of the obturator(black)
SAERE can accelerate, slow down, and even invert the motion of the obturator

Principles Four times cycle Conversion of the motion System for variable wedging
of the valves
System to regulate
the compression rate
& Applications
systèmes pour la conversion de mouvements et d'énergies renouvelables
& Pumps
Concept MPRBC
Concept POGDC

STIRLING's engines

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