SYstems for COnversion of MOtions and REnewable ENergies
CATHI's FAQ
 Frequently asked questions 
Sycomoreen's Car Actuated by Triple Hybrid Integration

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01/01/2017 : Is there a new triple hybrid vehicle which is now experienced by SYCOMOREEN ?
25/10/2016 : CATHI gets successfully its technical check for the third time after 6 years of good and faithful services.
06/08/2016 :
Awesome range for CATHI : is the Nickel Cadmium (Nicad) still is the race ?
08/06/2016 : Is CATHI equipped with a set of wheels featuring low rolling resistance for electric vehicles ?
15/02/2016 : Endurance-test in soft snowy conditions after the repairs of the CATHI's Nicad pack
28/12/2015 : Technical update of CATHI : nice perspectives and achievements for a produced EV in 2003 !
07/03/2015 : An Automobile Peugeot Video of 1997 which is still up to the news ?
06/11/2014 : CATHI gets successfully its technical check for the second time after 4 years of good and faithful services.
07/12/2012 : An article about CATHI written by the Swiss website Eco-Energie.ch ?
07/11/2012 : What are the conclusions of the CATHI's technical check usual maintenance : the water-filling of the Nicad batteries ?
07/10/2012 : The usual maintenance : the water-filling of the Nicad batteries ?
20/07/2012 : Recal1ls on the batteries' technologies : what are the CATHI's electrochemical choices ?
05/05/2012 : What is the CATHI's electric consumption in kWh / 100 km ?
05/03/2012 : Which devices are managing the flows of electric power for CATHI ?
01/02/2012 : How is decreasing the autonomy with hard wintry conditions for CATHI ?
15/01/2012 : Oh, what fun it is to ride in a fourty-one horses electric sleigh ?
01/09/2011 : What are the technical works to adapt the Citroën Berlingo to the Triple Hybridization ?
29/07/2011 : Is the Triple Hybridization of CATHI specifically : "Gasoline / NiCad / LiFePO4 ?
11/06/2011 : Has CATHI already achieved a 100 km course only with its batteries ?
29/05/2011 : How does the CATHI's electrogenerator support the LiFePO4 and NiCd packs of batteries ?
17/04/2011 : What is the range of CATHI while carrying a strong load on the roads of mountain ?
02/04/2011 : What are the technical and commercial features of CATHI ?
05/03/2011 : How does CATHI achieve 12 synergies through the choice of the triple hybridization ?
22/12/2010 : What are the CATHI's architecture and its summarized working  ?
15/12/2010 : Can the CATHI face the hard conditions of circulation  ?
09/12/2010 : What does the "CATHI" acronym mean ?


01/01/2017_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Is there new and different triple hybrid vehicle which is now experienced by SYCOMOREEN ?
Sycomoreen is indeed working on a new special prototype of car with renewable energy, more information on the right picture to watch the Sycomoreen's GOLF GTE 85 PLUS

25/10/2016_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 CATHI gets again its technical check : the third time after 6 years of good and faithful services.
CATHI succeeds in its technical check with the expected performances by the usual requirements of the automotive safety.

After more than 65 000 km, the differences of braking and suspension are weak and the distribution of the mass is 55% at the front axle 55% (905 kg) and 45% (750 kg) at the rear axle for a total mass of 1655 kg (driver is taken in account).

The Car Actuated by Triple Hybrid Integration (CATHI) is an exclusive intellectual property of SYCOMOREEN.

Multilinguage script of the movie.

To see also : 06/11/2014

Contrôle technique / Technical check of CATHI by Sycomoreen


06/08/2016_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Awesome range for CATHI : is the Nickel Cadmium (Nicad) still is the race ?

Summery travel of 100 km with CATHI : Car Actuated by Triple Hybrid Integration by SYCOMOREEN
After the CATHI's restoration of the Nicad Pack, and the mounting of tires with low rolling résistance, SYCOMOREEN has improved too the balancing of its 2 Lithium Iron Phosphate packs. On a trip with 800 m of vertical drop (driven up, then down ), here are the results ! 100 driven kilometers with 20 km of range remaining, nevertheless the load of the  Nicad pack was not an equalization (which can give 10 additional km). Thus it appears a Maximal Range of 130 km, although this vehicle got only 80 km out of its manufacture ; either + 60% ! And this without to use the electrogenerator...


08/06/2016_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Is CATHI equipped with a set of wheels featuring a low rolling resistance for electric vehicles ?

Berlingomoreen CATHI : car actuated by triple hybrid integration by SYCOMOREEN with Aluminium rims and tires Michelin Energy Saver
CATHI has been offered a set of well adapted tires for an electric vehicle : its 4 rims Tornado Silver 14" from the brand Cesam Sport, and also 4 tires Michelin Energy Saver 175/65 R14 82T. These 4 wheels with lower mass and "green" tires are going to improve the consumption of the vehicle.
To see all the photos on Ipernity
To see also : previous wheels Michelin Agilis
Berlingomoreen CATHI : car actuated by triple hybrid integration by SYCOMOREEN with Aluminium rims and tires Michelin Energy Saver


15/02/2016_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Endurance-test in soft snowy conditions after the repairs of the CATHI's Nicad Pack

CATHI : car actuated by triple hybrid integration. Citroën Berlingo Electric car driving in the snow ; Berlingomoreen by Sycomoreen

Soft snowy conditions : February 2016
Start in the area of Clermont Ferrand, Arrival in the area of Anzat le Luguet, then direction to the dwelling of Sycomoreen. Reload from 9 to 100% only for the Nicad's Pack for 6h, finally back to Clermont's location with 146 km and 50% remaining in the Nicads.
To see also: 01/02/2012
Topology : 109 km + 750 m of  up and down driven height.
Total autonomy  : until 115 km available.
Climate and driving conditions : Thickness of the layer of snow : 0 à 5 cm. Temperature 0°C, hard snow, Mountain's roads, faster roads and highway. Average speed : 50 km/h


28/12/2015_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Technical update of CATHI : nice perspectives and achievements for a produced EV* in 2003 !
* EV : Electric Vehicle

The Berlingomoreen CATHI has removed 16 batteries from its Nickel Cadmium pack of 2003 for more reliable 2011's models which are offering a better storage. The previous batteries are still useful and have been given to several fans of solar energy who will benefit from them to store renewable electricity. A full technical check has been lead, with the change of the direct voltage engine's brushes, and the new start of the Webasto's gasoline burner which is not at all reducing the range of the vehicle by using yearly less than 10L of ethanol/gasoline, whereas  the recent electric vehicles which are exhausting their batteries to heat the cockpit or unfroze the windshield... CATHI still takes advantage from its valiant current pushers Lithium-Iron-Phosphat which are upgrading the range at 120 km with a full electric drive, and will improve the mounting of its electrogenerator... which his bringing an even higher reachable distance and more of serenity for the long unforeseen journeys...

Thanks to the investment of the materials, energies and talents of différent actors of PSA Nicad's EV,
 the CATHI's  adventures are therefore far to be over !


SYCOMOREEN offers you the opportunity to dive in the heart of this unique vehicule through the slide-show below
CATHI has been moved by the vehicle's carrying truck (<3,5T) of CarGo : Cars' Rental Agency in Gerzat (63, Clermont Ferrand, France)


07/03/2015_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
An Automobile Peugeot video of 1997 which is still up to the news ?

The CATHI Berlingomoreen : Car Actuated by Triple Hybrid Integration by SYCOMOREEN
The vehicles Citroën Berlingo and Peugeot Partner Electric with Nickel Cadmium of PSA Company And the CATHI evolution by SYCOMOREEN


06/11/2014_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Batteries' Management Systems (BMS) Enginer, used for the Berlingomoreen CATHI by SYCOMOREEN CATHI gets successfully its technical check
for the second time after 4 years of good and faithful services.


* 45% of the weight on rear axle, 55% on the front axle.
* Awesome balance of brakes and shock absorbers / suspension.
* 56 282 driven kilometers

See also : 07/11/2012

07/12/2012_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 An article about CATHI written by the Swiss website Eco-Energie.ch ?
 To read the article on Eco-Energie.ch [in French]
07/11/2012_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What are the conclusions of the CATHI's technical check ?

CATHI succeeds in its technical check with greater performances than the usual requirements of the automotive security. The differences of braking and suspension are minute and the distribution of the mass is 55% at the front axle 55% (854 kg) and 45% (713 kg) at the rear axle for a total mass of 1567 kg (driver is taken in account, not the electrogenerator).
the testing bench for suspensions and brakes

The technical check of CATHI  by Sycomoreen


07/10/2012_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
The usual maintenance : the water-filling of Nicad batteries ?

At the end of every charge, the Nicad accumulators consume some water which is converted into H2 and O2. That's why one has to refill the batteries with demineralized water. This operation is done every 4000 km on the CATHI van.

Note : the hydrolysis of water is strongly protecting the Nicad batteries because it prevents them from any damage by overcharge.
Water-filling of the Nicad batteries for CATHI by Sycomoreen


20/07/2012_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Recalls on the batteries' technologies : what are the CATHI's electrochemical choices ?


Battery density

energy
mass 
density

power
mass
Electrochemistry Mass and électricity stored inside CATHI Voltage of the elementary electro
chemical cell
Installed pack inside CATHI Nominal Voltage
on CATHI
Electrolyte
_________
Cathode
_________
Anode
Commentaries
Nickel Cadmium
(NiCad ou NiCd)
54 Wh/kg 120 W/kg Aqueous redox between the couples NiOOH/Ni(OH)2 and Cd/Cd(OH)2
see details **
300 kg
16 kWh
100 Ah
1.2 V 27 Blocks in serie SAFT STM5-100-MRE
each is containing 5 cells in serie
162V aqueous potash (KOH)
_________
Nickel Metal
dihydroxide and Oxihydroxide
NiOOH
_________
Cadmium metal and dihydroxide
Power Batteries
with medium specific energy receiving the peak of current while accelerating or braking with kinetic energy recovery,
very robust, are accepting overcharge and deep discharge
Lithium Iron Phosphate
(LiFePO4 Li-Ion)
80 Wh/kg used
50 W/kg

possible until 300 W/kg
Organic redox by migration of Lithium cations between 2 crystaline matrixes
see details **
100 kg
8 kWh
160 Ah
3,3V 2 packs with each a serie of 16 couples in parallele. Each element contains 40Ah under 3,3V 48V organic solvents*  with a Lithium salt
________
Iron phosphate* FePO4
________
Graphite* and
 intercalation of Lithium
Power Batteries
with high specific energy which is bringing autonomy for the vehicle ; strict and imperative control of their voltages and currents
Lead Acide
(Pb)
30 Wh/kg 200 W/kg Aqueous redox between the couples Pb/PbO2 and Pb/PbSO4
see details **
20 kg
0.8 kWh
70 Ah
2.1 V 1 batterie with 6 cells in serie of 2,1V 12V aqueous H2SO4 sulfuric acid
_________
Lead Metal / Lead Dioxide & Sulfate
________
Lead Metal and
Lead sulfate
Auxiliary Battery
to supply twith 12V the accessories.
High current if well reloaded ; unadapted for traction because too heavy and doesn't stand the deep discharges

* The exact compositions are variable according to the manufacturers and are generally protected by the industrial secret.
** pdf documents written by Sycomoreen to discover and/or learn more about the assets and weaknesses of each type of accumulator.

The set of CATHIs power batteries is giving 24 kWh, 400 kg and 60 Wh/kg.
A complement :
precisions about the triple hybridation of CATHI


05/05/2012_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What is the CATHI's electric consumption in kWh / 100km ?

The campaign of consumption measurement at the electric plug of the Berlingomoreen CATHI is still in progress with its 4000th kWh for a driven distance of 17 479 km, either 12% less than the initial needs of the Citroën Berlingo Nickel Cadmium (26 kWh/100km), in spite of the carried additional mass of 8 kWh of LiFePO4 batteries. This electromobility is 100% renewable thanks to the OPALE solar plants.

Set of wall electric plugs AC 220V single and triphase 18 kW

The Sycomoreen's CATHI gets its 4000th kWh by SycomoreenCATHI is an exclusive intellectual property of SYCOMOREEN


05/03/2012_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Which devices are managing the flows of electric power for CATHI  ?

The Y4000 SAGEM Box, real managing brain of the PSA Nicad electric cars


The existing platform of the electric Citroën Berlingo is equipped with an Y4000 SAGEM box. It includes a PWM source/receiver of power reversible for the current : it allows to launch the vehicle or to have a regenerative braking. There is also a calculator, true manager for all the parameters and piloting the PWM device. Moreover, the Y4000 SAGEM box gets 2 converters ; the 3000W loader 220VAC/160VDC for the Nicad pack and the auxiliary loader 160VDC/12VDC for the accessories and the 12V lead acid battery.

In addition, the LiFePO4 packs installed by Sycomoreen have their own managing electronics and are designed to bring a constant current into the Nicad batteries, without interfering with the SAGEM box whatever the voltage of the Nicad Pack is. They are including their specific loaders and Batteries Managing Systems (BMS) to balance the Lithium elements. If it is required, they can be supplied by 2300 W AC220V coming from an electrogenerator (to see also : the CATHI's architecture).


01/02/2012_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
How is decreasing the autonomy with hard wintry conditions for CATHI ?

Test of CATHI's electric autonomy
under hard wintry conditions

Topology
75 km round-trip
750 m of driven altitude up and down

Climate and driving condition
Snow coverage : 0 to 10 cm and temperature 0°C
Road of mountain

Performances
Average speed : 45 km/h

After the start at exactly 100% (no overcharge) in every pack of batteries, the arrival gives:
- 24% remaining in the Nicad pack,
- 28% remaining in the first LiFePO4 pack,
- 20% remaining in the second LiFePO4 pack.

Conclusion
Either about 1km per %. In these unfavorable conditions, the maximal CATHI's autonomy is around 100 km ; 20% less than the usual range.
To see also : 15/12/2010 CATHI is an exclusive intellectual property of SYCOMOREEN


15/01/2012_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 Oh, What fun it is to ride in a forty one horses electric sleigh ?

The Car Actuated by Triple Hybrid Integration prolongs the New Year's Eve parties and is wishing you the Best for 2012.

Sycomoreen's Car Actuated by Triple Hybrid Integration (CATHI)


01/09/2011_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHAT ARE THE TECHNICAL WORKS TO ADAPT THE CITROËN BERLINGO TO THE TRIPLE HYBRIDIZATION ?

The Car Actuated by Triple Hybrid Integration has been build lasting the 2010 fall on the basis of Citroën Berlingo Electric van, of range extenders with Lithium by Enginer.us, and also a thermal electro generator and an inrush current limiter with 2 ways which was especially designed for this application.

The CATHI Berlingomoreen : Car Actuated by Triple Hybrid Integration by SYCOMOREEN

to watch the slide show in full screen on Ipernity


29/07/2011_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
IS THE TRIPLE HYBRIDIZATION OF CATHI SPECIFICALLY : " Gasoline / Nicad / LiFePO4 " ?

The Car Actuated by Triple Hybrid Integration (CATHI) articulates around one electrogenerator fed by gasoline (to reinforce the autonomy) and the new electrical combination designed by Sycomoreen of one pack of Nickel Cadmium (Nicad, or NiCd) batteries and one pack of Lithium Iron Phosphat (LiFePO4) batteries.

Sycomoreen has chosen these batteries because they are among the best for the traction of electric or hybrid vehicles, but  especially because they bring very complementary characteristics. Thus the set NiCd/LiFePO4 allows to get all the advantages of each type of batteries (numerous) while erasing their drawbacks (as numerous).   Notice : the polluting NiCd batteries ?

However, and without heavily speaking about the technical details, the batteries with Nickel Cadmium have known and ulterior version, the Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH), and the Lithium batteries are of several types (Lithium Ion (Li-Ion), Lithium Polymer (LiPo) and Lithium Iron Phosphat (LiFePO4)).

It indeed exists only 2 effective but separately imperfect families of batteries for traction : those with Nickel and those with Lithium.**

The Sycomoreen's design of Triple Hybridization is not specifically from the trio "Gasoline, NiCad, LiFePO4" and stays absolutely foreseeable with :
- an electrogenerating device with hydrocarbons (gasoline, Diesel, gas, biomass, organic garbages, Stirling generator...)
- a pack of batteries which are very resilient and supporting the very high currents (this feature is currently granted by the Nickel accumulators)
- a pack of batteries more fragile, but with a better specific energy (this feature is currently granted by the Lithium accumulators).

As the ideal batterie will never exist, the Triple Hybridization is a robust and everlasting concept.


 * The Cadmium of the NiCad batteries has "justified" their interdiction in Europe because it is a polluting element if it is rejected in the environment without care. Nevertheless, for batteries of traction, the Cadmium can be easily collected (and even recycled), as the used oil of a thermal engine. This interdiction, followed by numerous derogations (notably in aeronautics and the sector of railways where NiCd is indispensable), braked significantly the rise of electric vehicles and the R&D about Nicad. Regarding the small accumulators, the NiMH successfully took the relief, but for those of traction, the NiMH was a technical alternative as applicable as ephemeral because numerous patents and designs of serial cars with NiMH are currently sleeping in the cardboards of some manufacturers of cars. The result is simple : the "modern" electric vehicles are now forced to use only Lithium batteries, that is technically penalizing. One (im)pertinent ask : Why no one has wondered about to forbid the lubricant oils because they are polluting if they are leaved in the Nature ?

** The Lead batteries (acid or gel) are also used, but their big mass for a given energy is a very "heavy" handicap  for a vehicle.

11/06/2011_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 HAS CATHI ALREADY ACHIEVED A 100 KM COURSE ONLY WITH ITS BATTERIES ?

Sycomoreen is inviting you to board in his Car Actuated by Triple Hybrid Integration (CATHI) for a 100 km travel in full electric mode.

view on controlling and balancing devices of LiFePO4 batteries

Trip of 100 km inside the Citroën Berlingomoreen by Sycomoreen


29/05/2011_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 HOW DOES THE CATHI's ELECTROGENERATOR SUPPORT THE LiFePO4 & NiCd PACKS OF BATTERIES ?

Sycomoreen has designed a special box for limitation of the inrush current & direct plug and is inviting you to watch a short video on this topic.
the box of NTC thermistor and direct plug for the CATHI's electrogenerator

to see also : 05/03/2011 and 22/12/2010 Inrush current limiter 2 ways for CATHI sent by Sycomoreen


17/04/2011_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 WHAT IS THE RANGE OF CATHI WHILE CARRYING A STRONG LOAD ON THE ROADS OF MOUNTAIN ?

Sycomoreen is inviting you to watch the stamina test : Part 1/2 Part 2/2 which reveals 120 km of autonomy.

Berlingomoreen CATHI with load of 200 kg by Sycomoreen

Berlingomoreen CATHI with load of 200 kg by Sycomoreen


02/04/2011_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 WHAT ARE THE TECHNICAL AND COMMERCIAL FEATURES OF CATHI ?

Sycomoreen is explaining you the technical characteristics of its prototype Berlingo CATHI (Van) and also target values for a family Sedan.

CATHI is an exclusive intellectual property of SYCOMOREEN Value Target Citroën Berlingo Electric : restyling 2002-2007
Aerodynamics / geometry Van Sedan
Length 4.498 m 4.5 m
Width 1.788 m 1.75 m
Height 1.80 m 1.4 m
Coefficient of shape  Cx 0.29 0.25
Frontal area S 3.2 2.4
Aerodymical Coefficient SCx 0.92 0.6
Swinging doors 2 4
Sliding doors 1 0
Back door 2 1
Electric Engine Van Sedan
Brushed direct current engine Leroy Somer /
Voltage  162 V DC / Architecture of the Berlingomoreen CATHI
Current 0 to +/-175A /
Excitation séparée /
Rated Power 15.5 kW 30kW
Max Power from 1600 RPM 28 kW 74 kW
Torque max 0 to 1600 RPM 180 N.m 300 N.m
Brushes Yes Brushless
Reference Leroy Somer SA18 /
Controller SAGEM /
Powering PWM with IGBT SAGEM /
Pack Nickel Cadmium Berlingo Familiale
Voltage
162 V DC /
Current (direct) 175A max /
Stored energy in batteries 16.2 kWh 2 kWh Car Actuated by Triple Hybrid Integration (CATHI) by SYCOMOREEN
Number of SAFT STM5-100 27 /
Cooling with water with air
Pack Lithium Iron Phosphat Van Sedan
Voltage 120 à 180 V /
Current 0, 15 ou 30A 90A
Energy stored 2 x 4 kWh 24 kWh
Nbr of Motcell LiFePO4 3.2V 2 x (16 x 2) /
Cooling ventilated
 air
ventitlated air
Managing and balancing (BMS) Enginer US /
Electrogenerator Van Sedan
Thermal & removable Gasoline 3000 W 8000W Tires Michelin Agilis 175/65R14 90T, rolling resistance coefficient 0.01 at 4 Bar
Tank 15 L 30 L Consumptions at 65 km/h : electric 23 kWh/100 km at the 220V plug ; Gasoline : 5L/100 km
Ranges at 65 km/h 420 km 730 km Reloading duration : 220V15A AC : NiCd 7h ; LiFePO4 5h, automatic redirecting NiCd to Li
Electrical 80+40 km 130 km Mass 1550 kg with 1100 kg of frame, Pack NiCd 300 kg, Pack LiFePO4 : 100 kg : Gen 50kg
Thermal 300 km 600 km Estimated costs: Vehicle 7000 €, Pack LiFePO4 + Mounting 7000 €, Generator 500 €
CATHI is an exclusive intellectual property of SYCOMOREEN 220V AC DC Technical Document about Citroën Berlingo (French) ; Technical Document of the Enginer US Kit


05/03/2011
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
HOW DOES CATHI ACHIEVE 12 SYNERGIES THROUGH THE CHOICE OF THE TRIPLE HYBRIDIZATION ?

The CATHI's triple hybridization aims to get all the advantages of the NiCd/LiFePO4 batteries and of its thermal generator, while drastically decreasing their drawbacks thanks to a rational design and a discriminating use of each kind of energy.


CATHI is an exclusive intellectual property of SYCOMOREEN
TRIPLE ENERGY
Energy n°1 : electrochemical
Nickel Cadmium (NiCd, Nicad) batteries
Energy n°2 : electrochemical
Lithium Fer Phosphate (LiFePO4) Batteries
Energy n°3 : chemical
Hydrocarbons
Advantages accepts very strong currents of charge and discharge

works well even if the elements are unbalanced : no need for a BMS device (Batteries Managing System)

accepts the overcharges

Performances with low temperatures
interesting specific energy

No self discharge

No liquid electrolyte, no maintenance

Very few resisting elements :
very few Joule effect

Good yield of Charge/Discharge

Insensitive to the memory effect
Huge specific energy of the fuel with the thermal electrogenerator (Gasoline, Diesel or gas)
Drawbacks Low specific energy

Self-discharge and metalling effects

Aqueous electrolyte K-OH (potasse)

Maintenance of the batteries

Poor yield of charge/discharge

Resistance of the elements entailing some Joule effect

Sensitiveness to the memory effect
doesn't accept the strong currents of charge and discharge

doesn't work well if the elements are unbalanced : absolute necessity to have a BMS device

doesn't accept the overcharges
 (destruction of the elements)

Weakness with low temperature
Dead weigh if it isn't used

Noise, odors
pollution of the burned gases

Vibrations.
Function for CATHI Energy buffer
absorbing the peaks of current
- either to move the vehicle
- either to slow down the vehicle (recovering braking) 
Tank of energy with very low self discharge
design to supply with a high yield the power for the car with moderate constant speeds
Range extender, or
Emergency generator, in case of deeply discharged batteries
(ponctually)
Technical data
about the working prototype
CATHI of Sycomoreen
Need 20 kWh/100 km*
16.2 kWh, 300 kg
+/- 150A under 162V DC
81 km at average 50 km/h
8 kWh : 100 kg
0 or +15 or +30A under 162V DC
40 km at average 50 km/h
3000 W generator with 15L of gasoline, removable 50 kg
300 km at average 50 km/h
Top speed 95 km/h (electronically limited) 95 km/h (electronically limited) 95 km/h
Desirable technical datas***
for an hybrid van
Hypothesis 23 kWh/100 km**

2 kWh, 50 kg
+/- 150A under 162V DC
9 km at average 65 km/h
24 kWh : 450 kg
0 until 90 A by steps of 15A
under 162V continus
96 km at average 65 km/h
8000 W generator with 30L of gasoline or Diesel,
 removable 80 kg
500 km at average 65 km/h
Note for speed : 1 mph = 1,609 km/h    and 1 km/h = 0.621 mph
Note for volume : 1 gal  = 3,785 L    and 1 L = 0.264 gal
Note for volume : 1 lbs = 0.453 lbs    and 1 kg = 2.204 lbs

The 12 intrinsic Synergies to the CATHI's architecture

1) The combination LiFePO4 / NiCd deletes the issue of self discharging and metalling effects for the NiCd (which is storing a little part of the energy) while allowing the high yields of the LiFePO4 (which are storing most of the electrochemical energy).

2) The combination LiFePO4 / NiCd attenuates the poor yield of charge/discharge for the NiCd (one can even not charge the pack NiCd) while using the high yields of LiFePO4 to unstore the energy.

3) The combination LiFePO4 / NiCd brings the overcurrents to the NiCd batteries (recovering braking or strongly accelerating), that is preserving the LiFePO4 (whose current can't reverse thanks to unidirectional power diodes).

4) The combination LiFePO4 / NiCd moves the vehicle with cold weather (thanks to the good cold behaviour of NiCd) and is heating the LiFePO4 until a operational step through the thermal waste of the working NiCd.

5) The combination LiFePO4 / NiCd takes advantage of the good specific energy of the LiFePO4 (storing most of the energy) while having the possibility to overcharge the NiCd (but moderately, punctually to get a better range)

6) The combination LiFePO4 / NiCd allows to use smaller currents on both batteries, that is increasing the energy that they give out (thanks to the Peukert's effect)

7) The NiCd batteries don't  undergo repetitive cycles between full charge and dischargethe Nicad's memory effect doesn't appear anymore thanks to the big heterogeneity of the times and the currents of charge and discharge required in the NiCd pack according the driving events.

8) The combination LiFePO4 / NiCd makes possible for the BMS to balance the LiFePO4 packs without been disturbed by the charge/discharge granted by the NiCd : if a heavy unbalance appears in the LiFePO4 packs, the vehicle keep to drive with the NiCd while the LiFePO4 packs are balanced by the BMS (it is even possible to isolate one of the LiFePO4 blocks among them) 

9) The LiFePO4 batteries are charging and discharging under a constant optimal current wich is granting their longevity.

10) The LiFePO4  pack is divided in blocks which supply 15A, according to the driving requirements :
      a) Coming down : 0A,
      b) Need for a limited power : 1 or some LiFePO4 blocks are supplying,
      c) Need for the entire power : all the blocks LiFePO4 are supplying.
      d) Need for a boost : all the LiFePO4 blocks and the NiCd are supplying

11) The NiCd can stay discharged to assure a recovering braking in the case where the vehicle is parked at high altitude and must drive a long coming down before to need for the traction of its batteries**** : 2 kWh is the potential recovered energy from a vertical coming down of 489 m without any rubbing for a vehicle of 1500 kg  : by counting the rubbings (aerodynamics and tires' drags), 600 m of fall down are storable while securing the vehicle and making it efficient through the regenerative braking.

12) The removable feature of the thermal electrogenerator allows to suppress his dead weigh for all the little trips, to give punctually a very high range for the vehicle, while promoting the generator for other uses that the car (like home cogenerating, yard's generator, emergency electric supply).

Notices :
* Measured at the reloading plug (Berlingomoreen coming from PSA) for routes at limited speed (average 50 km/h) with no snow-covered roads.
** Measured at the reloading plug (Berlingomoreen coming from PSA) for routes at standard speed (average 65 km/h) with no snow-covered roads.
*** By keeping a 162 V DC powering device.
****  This problem is currently not solved by any builder of EV, who are proposing 'at best' discharging resistances (wasting the energy), and usually nothing (except to start with partially discharged batteries due to a manual unplugging of the electric wire) : the vehicle is extremely dangerous if it is slown down only by its brakes under the conditions of  strong and long coming down.

For information : short numerical comparison of electric accumulators


22/12/2010_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 WHAT ARE THE CATHI'S ARCHITECTURE AND ITS SUMMARIZED WORKING ?

Sycomoreen's CATHI : Principal plan and Flows of energyCATHI is an exclusive intellectual property of SYCOMOREEN
Sycomoreen's CATHI : legend of the devices and flows of energy This Berlingomoreen gets 3 different sources of energy (triple hybridization)
      1) one pack of NiCd batteries (Nickel Cadmium : 16.2 kWh)
      2) one double pack LiFePO4  batteries (Lithium Iron Phosphate : 4 + 4 = 8kWh)
      3) one thermal electrogenerator of 3000 W peak which is started especially

The initial architecture of the vehicle and its management are protected : some additional direct current (30A under 162V) is injected through the PWM with the 2 breakers of the control panel.

While circulating, the driver is free :
     a) to turn off the range extenders if the conditions of circulation don't need them (cities, coming down)
     b) to turn on the range extenders if power is required (road, freeway, coming up, overtaking)
     
For the reload, 2 options are possible :
      1) Electric reload on the grid with 220V 50Hz plug, according to 3 variants :
          a) pack NiCd only through the Maréchal plug with the K1 breaker closed and K2 opened (14A 220V AC)
           b) packs LiFePO4 only by closing the K0, K5 and K6 breakers (it needs for 11A 220V AC)
           c) all the packs with the Maréchal plug with K1, K2,K5, K6 ON. K0 stays OFF and. :
                     i) K3 is OFF during the 9 first hours (14A 220V AC),
                     ii) K3 is ON as soon as the start of the 10th hour (11A 220V AC)
      2) Thermal reload with the electrogenerator : K4,K5 and K6 are closed, K0, K1, K2 and K3 are opened. This reload flows through the LiFePO4, but can also directly go towards the NiCd through the loaders + overvoltaging converters of each range extender.

15/12/2010_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 CAN THE CATHI FACE THE HARD CONDITIONS OF CIRCULATION ?

The Car Actuated by Triple Hybrid Integration (CATHI) gets a substantial energy reserve and is facing the very demanding conditions (mountains, snow, freeways) of haulage as showed in this movie of an endurance-test at the end of November 2010 :

The CATHI Berlingomoreen

Citroën Berlingo Electric Triple Hybrid CATHI sent by Sycomoreen


09/12/2010_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHAT DOES THE "CATHI" ACRONYM MEAN ?

CATHI means Car Actuated by Triple Hybrid Integration

Berlingomoreen CATHI

This Berlingomoreen is a vehicle with a large electric predominance and gets 3 different sources of energy (triple hybridization)
      1) one pack of NiCd batteries (Nickel Cadmium : 16.2 kWh)
      2) one double pack LiFePO4  batteries (Lithium Iron Phosphate : 4 + 4 = 8kWh)
      3) one thermal electrogenerator of 3000 W peak which is started especially :
        - either to increase the autonomy as soon as the beginning for a long trip,
        - either for the case of an unpredicted weariness on the batteries.

The Berlingomoreen during the work for CATHI

CATHI is implanted on the existing basis of the Citroën Berlingo Electric Van.

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Sycomoreen's Car Actuated by Triple Hybrid Integration