FAQ
of the Golf GTE'85 PLUS
Frequently
asked questions

Syngas is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of dihydrogen(H2), carbon monoxide(CO), and very often some carbon dioxide(CO2). The name comes from its use as intermediates in creating synthetic final products. Syngas is usually a product of gasification and the main application is electricity generation. Syngas is combustible and often used as a fuel of internal combustion engines. Syngas can be produced from many sources, including natural gas, coal, biomass, or virtually any hydrocarbon feedstock, by reaction with steam (steam reforming), carbon dioxide (dry reforming) or oxygen (partial oxidation). Syngas is a crucial intermediate to get methanol, and other synthetic hydrocarbon fuels, like Ethanol, and further synthetic petroleum via the Fischer–Tropsch(FT) or the Mobil methanol to gasoline (MTG) process.  
Useful
links about this topic :
National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL  US Department of Energy) Report of Assemblée Nationale n°1169 du 19 juin 2013 (France) : Biomass to serve a sustainable development. Gasification (Wikipedia) Fischer Tropsch process (Wikipedia) Methanol to Gasoline (MTG by ExxonMobil) Enerkem's Facility from urban wastes to Ethanol 

To see also : agricultural impacts of the Golf GTE85+ 
There are 18
millions hectares of arable land in France. If 1% of this area were devoted to the agroethanol, it would represent 180,000 hectares. A
Golf 7 Multifuel (NON HYBRID) which is consuming 6.6 L / 100 km of E85 and
traveling 15000 km / year, requires an arable surface of 1235 m²
(assumption 75 tonnes per hectare). As 1 ha = 10 000 m², 1% of the French arable agricultural area can therefore promote 180000 * 10 000/1235 = 1 457 489 cars. About 1.5 million flexfuel cars.
The hybridization of the Golf GTE85 + can consume 3 times less, while saving the precious biofuel for small daily trips that are provided with additional electricity. Thus 4.5 millions Golf GTE85 + at 2.2L / 100 km of E85 would be sustainable
9% of the land would cover even the entire 38 millions of cars and light utility vehicles in France (<5 tonnes excluding buses and trucks) if they were adapted like the GTE85+. There are other perspectives for the bioalcohols (Methanol & Ethanol) through the gasification of organic wastes. 

The future of the sugar beets in France : Towards 100 tons per hectare ! To see also about this topic :  01/10/2017 01/01/2018 
146 driven kilometers
Consumptions : * Fuel : 5,3 L/100 km * Electricity : 3.5 kWh/100 km Real costs for 100 km : * Fuel : 5,3 L/100 km x 0.55 €/L = 2.92 € * Electricity : 3.5 kWh x 0.15 €/kWh = 0.52 € Total : 3,44 € / 100 km
Real consumptions for 100 km : * in full electric mode : 17 kWh/100 km * in full E85 mode : 7 L/100 km Real cost of the trip : 146 km x 3.44 €/100 km = 5.02 € CO2 emissions are divided by a 4 factor, by assuming that the E85 is producing 3 times less CO2 than the SP95 for the same given energy, and with a renewable electricity, we get 3.95 :
6
L/100
km
0.33 * 5,3 L/100km /1.15 Hypotheses : 6 L/100 km with SP95, overconsumption of 15% with E85 
Financial savings done with this little trip, regarding the conventional SP95 at 1,4 € /L for 6 L/100km 146 km x (1.4 €/L x 6 L/100km  3.44 € /100km) = 5,75 € To see also : 15/11/2017 
321 driven kilometers
Consumptions : * Fuel : 5,6 L/100 km * Electricity : 1.3 kWh/100 km Real costs for 100 km : * Fuel : 5,6 L/100 km x 0.55 €/L = 3.08 € * Electricity : 1.3 kWh x 0.15 €/kWh = 0.20 € Total : 3,28 € / 100 km
Real consumptions for 100 km : * in full electric mode : 17 kWh/100 km * in full E85 mode : 7 L/100 km Real cost of the trip : 321 km x 3.28 €/100 km = 10.53 € CO2 emissions are divided by a 4 factor, by assuming that the E85 is producing 3 times less CO2 than the SP95 for the same given energy, and with a renewable electricity, we get 3.73 :
6
L/100
km
0.33 * 5,6 L/100km /1.15 Hypothèses : 6 L/100 km with SP95, overconsumption of 15% with E85 
Financial savings done with this little trip, regarding the conventional SP95 at 1,4 € /L for 6 L/100km 321 km x (1.4 €/L x 6 L/100km  3.28 € /100km) = 16,45 € To see also : 01/11/2017 
Financial savings on this full tank, regarding a conventional use of SP95 at 1,4 € /L and 6 L/100km (1.4 €/L x 6 L/100km  2.63 € /100km) x 5334 km = 307.77 € CO2 emissions are divided by a 9 factor, by assuming that the E85 is producing 3 times less CO2 than the SP95 for the same given energy, and with a renewable electricity, we get 8.71 :
6
L/100
km
0.33 * 2,4 L/100km /1.15 Hypotheses : 6 L/100 km with SP95, overconsumption of 15% with E85 To see also : 03/09/2017

5334 driven kilometers
with only 2,4 L/100 km of E85 ! 
2000 driven kilometers
from a full tank with only 40L of E85 until 2000 + 20 + 45 = 2045 km Consumptions : * Fuel : 2,0 L/100 km * Electricity : 8.9 kWh/100 km Real Costs for 100 km : * Fuel : 2,0 L/100 km x 0.55 €/L = 1.10 € * Electricity : 8.9 kWh x 0.13 € kWh = 1.16 € Total : 2,26 € / 100 km
Real Consumptions for 100 km : * with full Ethanol85 mode : 6,6L/100 km * with full electric mode : 15 kWh/100 km CO2 emissions are divided by a 10 factor, by assuming that the E85 is producing 3 times less CO2 than the SP95 for the same given energy, and with a renewable electricity, we get 10.45 :
6
L/100
km
0.33 * 2,0 L/100km /1.15 Hypotheses : 6 L/100 km of SP95, overconsumption of 15% in E85 also to see : 07/05/2017

Financial savings :
2000 km x (1.4 €/L x 6 L/100km  2.26 € /100km) = 122,80 €
regarding the conventional SP95 at 1,4€ /L and 6L/100km : 
An unprecedented
experience with the Golf GTE85+ ; a trailer has been driven for a trip with 1 stere of wood. About 500 kg of rolling mass and without significant aerodynamic obstacle. Dry road,
22°C of temperature. The following results are coming from it :
* 4 L/100 km of E85, and * 8.3 kWh/100 km of electricity If this trip would have been done only with fuel, we would have : 4L/100 km + 8.3 kWh/100 km x (6.6L/100 km / 15 kWh/100km) = 7.65L / 100 km.
If this trip would be powered with electricity, we would have : 8.3 kWh + 4L/100 km x (15 kWh/100km / 6.6L/100 km) = 17.4 kWh/100 km
It is showing an increase of the consumption by 16% in comparison with the average recorded needs (15 kWh/100 km and 6.6L/100
km of E85). Once again, the advantages of hybridization are appearing here, which are allowing a strong power of towing and a long range for the trip with the easiness to fill the tank of fuel anywhere. No 100% electric vehicle is able to offer such a serenity for a towing job. The costs for this trip are :
8.3 kWh x 0.15 €/kWh + 4L/100 km x 0.55€/kWh = 3,45 €/100km And by restricting the calculation with the 67 driven kilometers : 3.45 € x
67km / 100km = 2,3
€


CO2 emissions are divided by a factor 6 =
6.96
L/100
km 0.33 * 4 L/100km /1.15 Hypotheses : 1.16 x 6 = 6.96 L/100 km with SP95, +15% en E85 
To see also about this topic : 03/09/2017 15/05/2017 Tow hitch The Wood Logs [French] 
SPECIFIC
CALCULATIONS OF THE GTE85+
The Golf GTE85+ is yearly driving 15 000 km and consuming 2,5 L/100 km of E85. Thus it is needing 2,5 L/100 km x 150 000 km = 375 L. However, the E85 is containing only 85% of ethanol, therefore, the yearly consumption is 375 L x 85/100 = 318,75 L, we will estimate that at 320 L of ethanol by year. The density of ethanol is 789 kg/m3 ; it means that the Golf GTE85+ is using 789 kg/m3 x 0.32 m3 = 252,48 kg of alcohol. In France, the industrial sugar plants are producing about 75 kg of ethanol from 1000 kg of beets. Thus, the GTE85+ is requiring 1000 kg(beets) x 252.48 kg(ethanol) / 75 kg(ethanol) = 3366,4 kg of beets ; we will value that at about 3.5 Tons of Beets. Finally, still in
France, the beets' harvest is 74,8 tons by hectare (10
000 m²). It means that the GTE85+ is requiring an agricultural
area of
10 000 m² x 3,5 T / 74.8 T = 468 m², what is equal to a
square with a side of 22 m in a sugar beets' yard
(about 500 m²).

THE
FRENCH SITUATION
In France, we have less than 1% of the
French usable agricultural surface, either 300 000 hectares to
produce some
bioethanol and its food coproducts.
With a look on these data, one is
understanding that « the
production of
bioenergies from cultures is not threatening the food supply
». Already in July 2016, a report written by the IFPRI
(International
Food Policy Research Institute) was agreeing with these ideas ; it has
been achieved with the collaboration of the World
Bank.
The Institute
is precising that
« the
incitative policies to
produce biofuels could have a positive effect on the food
security with a very strong benefit if they are well designed
». The report is also insisting on the noncompetition
in
farming surfaces of food with biofuels. It is even recommending to use « flex cultures
» which are able to supply both bioenergies (notably
biofuels) and food with other coproducts.
France, a country of excellence
in agricultural
production, has all the incentives to develop its paths for biofuels ;
in this goal, some tax benefits already support
the
SP95E10, and especially the E85
path.

OTHER
HYPOTHESES
If the GTE85+ could burn the
E100, it would need 468 / 0.85 = 550 m², thus one
will notice that a
square with a side of
24 m which is cultivated with beets would supply enough
100% renewable fuel for the GTE85+.
If the GTE85+ would burn ONLY some E85 and never be reload on the electric grid, the impact would be greater because the consumption would raise to 6,6 L/100 km au lieu de 2,5 L/100 km of E85 : 6,6 / 2,5 x 468 m² = 1235 m², either a square with a side of 35 m. Then it is inescapable to hybridize the vehicule to decrease the farming consequences, by allowing to drive all pendular paths with renewable electricity. Moreover, such a car is polluting much less in the urban areas by moving with the the 100% electric mode. 
AT
THE WORLDWIDE SCALE
According to FranceAgriMer,
the raw
world surface which is dedicated for biofuels is reaching less than 1 %
of the usable agricultural surface.
It is even decreasing until 0,61 % if we are taking in account the coproducts which are coming back to feed the animals. The FARM (Fondation pour l’Agriculture et la Ruralité dans le Monde) or the FAO (Food & Agriculture Organization  United Nations) are confirming that « the strict opposition between food and biofuels is out of date because we can achieve to produce jointly both biofuels and enough food ». However, the purely mercantile and uncontrolled development of crops (and this is not limited to agrofuels) has to be prevented, such as ensuring that tropical forests are not destroyed to grow sugarcane (ethanol) or the oil palm for biodiesel. 
Sources Biofuels and food security HLPE June 2013 [pdf ; 3,7 Mo] Reconciling food security and bioenergy: priorities for action IFPRI Sugarbeet, Yields and Products : Tereos.com lesucre.com labetterave.com 
Also
to see : Bioéthanolcarburant.com [Link 1] [Link2] 03/09/2017 12/03/2017 24/12/2016 Summery interlude of 2017 
5610 driven kilometers
with only 2,6 L/100 km of E85 ! Consumptions : * Fuel : 2,6 L/100 km * Electricity : 8.5 kWh/100 km Real Costs for 100 km : * Fuel : 2,6 L/100 km x 0.55 €/L = 1.43 € * Electricity : 8.5 kWh x 0.15 € kWh = 1.28 € Total : 2,71 € / 100 km
Real Consumptions for 100 km : * with full Ethanol85 mode : 6,6 L/100 km * with full electric mode : 15 kWh/100 km Financial savings,
regarding the conventional SP95 at 1,4 € /L and 6 L/100km :
(1.4 €/L x 6 L/100km  2.71 € /100km)x 5610 km = 319.21 € To see also : 22/05/2017

CO2 emissions are divided by a 8 factor, by assuming that the E85 is producing 3 times less CO2 than the SP95 for the same given energy, and with a renewable electricity, we get 8.04 :
6
L/100
km
0.33 * 2,6 L/100km /1.15 Hypotheses : 6L/100 km of SP95, overconsumption of 15% with E85 
Ethanol'85, also
known as Superethanol
or E85 in France, contains 6585% of agroethanol (produced from
sugarcane, cereals or from sugar beet) and it is mixed with 3515% of
unleaded gasoline (Supercarburant 95 or 98). Commercially
highly competitive, the E85 is more and more attractive for the
customers. Designed for gasoline engines, this fuel requires
modifications* in carburation to increase the volumes of
fuel which is burnt in the engine ;
E85 indeed requires between 15 and 20% of additional volume to deliver
the same energy compared to the unleaded gasoline (SP95 or
98).
Depending on the vehicle, these modifications* are of several types : the installation of additional kits, or the reprogramming of the calculator, or the change of the nozzles on the old engines with carburetor. AgroEthanol is also incorporated into the SuperCarburant in a proportion of 10% by volume (the SP95E10). The SP95E10 is compatible with almost all gasoline cars without any modification*. In France, the SP95E10 is even leading to the disappearance of the "pure" SP95 at the service stations. In 2016, nearly 100 millions of E85 liters have been sold in France, it represents 1% of the gasoline market, but the trend is on the rise. Indeed, the E85 savings are about 500 €uros for 12 000 driven kilometers. At present, more than 850 fuelstations in France are offering the distribution of biofuel E85. 
SYCOMOREEN
is proposing you this following links to know if you have a nearby
station for your little daily trails, but also to plan the refuelings
of E85 in the set of a long trip in France :

* WARNING: Always to get the
advice of a Professional
and to obtain a technical diagnosis about the compatibility of your
engine with the E85 or even SP95E10: on some vehicles, some parts are intolerant to ethanol,
although the majority of gasoline engines are fitted for it. 
5478 driven kilometers
with only 2,5 L/100 km of E85 ! Consumptions : * Fuel : 2,5L/100 km * Electricity : 8.9 kWh/100 km Real Costs for 100 km : * Fuel : 2,5L/100 km x 0.55 €/L = 1.375 € * Electricity : 8.9 kWh x 0.15 € kWh = 1.335 € Total : 2,71 € / 100 km
Real Consumptions for 100 km : * with full Ethanol85 mode : 6,6L/100 km * with full electric mode : 15 kWh/100 km Financial savings,
regarding the conventional SP95 at 1,4€ /L and 6L/100km :
(1.4 €/L x 6 L/100km  2.71 € /100km)x 5478 km = 311.70 € To see also : 24/12/2016

CO2 emissions are divided by a 8 factor, by assuming that the E85 is producing 3 times less CO2 than the SP95 for the same given energy, and with a renewable electricity, we get 8.36 :
6
L/100
km
0.33 * 2,5 L/100km /1.15 Hypotheses : 6 L/100 km of SP95, overconsumption of 15% with E85 
Power
& Lithium United by the Sun (PLUS !) To see also : 07/05/2017 
Above, some information about the situation of the Electricity's French market [Source : Selectra] 
The Golf GTE is a little known good towing car.
Indeed, the G code is 1599 kg
(equipped vehicle with the coupling) while the F3 code (total allowed rolling weight) is worth 3575 kg. In
France, this car can tow 3575  1599 = 1976 kg, almost 2 tons with the
required driving license.


1860 driven kilometers
with a 40L tank of E85 ! Consumptions : * Fuel : 2,2 L/100 km * Electricity : 9.3 kWh/100 km Real costs for 100 km : * Fuel : 2,2 L/100 km x 0.55 €/L = 1.21 € * Electricity : 9.3 kWh x 0.13 €/kWh = 1.21 € Total : 2,42 € / 100 km
Real consumptions for 100 km : * with full Ethanol85 mode : 6,6 L/100 km * with full electric mode : 15 kWh/100 km CO2 emissions are divided by a 10 factor, by assuming that the E85 is producing 3 times less CO2 than the SP95 for the same given energy, and with a renewable electricity, we get 9.5 :
6
L/100
km
0.33 * 2,2 L/100km /1.15 Hypotheses : 6 L/100 km en SP95, Overconsumption of 15% with the E85 
Financial savings on this full tank, regarding a conventional use of SP95 at 1,4 € /L and 6 L/100km : 1860 km x (1.4 €/L x 6L/100km  2.42 € /100km) = 111,23 € Also to be seen : 24/12/2016 
Optimizing
battery sizes of
by :Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREV) for different user types M. Redelbach, E. D. Özdemir, H. E. Friedrich for : the Institute of Vehicle Concepts, German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt (DLR), Stuttgart, Germany This paper introduces a holistic approach for the optimization of the battery size of PHEVs and EREVs under German market conditions. The assessment focuses on the heterogeneity across drivers, by analyzing the impact of different driving profiles on the optimal battery setup from Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) perspective. The results show that the battery size has a significant effect on the TCO. For an average German driver (15,000km/year), battery capacities of 4 kWh (PHEV) and 6 kWh (EREV) would be cost optimal by 2020. While driver A with low annual mileage (7500km/a) should choose a very small battery capacity of about 2kWh, frequent driver C (30,000km/a) should decide for a considerably higher battery size of about 13kWh in order to minimize his total cost of ownership. Therefore, it is especially important to take the driving profile of the customers into account in order to find the cost efficient powertrain configuration. 

The Golf GTE (6,5 kWh) is interesting for the Drivers of Type B on the German market.  Source : Sciencedirect.com Also to see : 24/12/2016 
Hypothesis of Distance 
Hypothesis of fosil fuel's consumption 
Consumption E85 mixed with
gasoline until 85% 
Consumption of renewable electricity at the electric plug 
saved fossil fuel 
Kilometric costs* 100% gasoline 
Kilometric costs* GTE85 + 
Kilometric costs* with Diesel 
oil 5  6L/100km 
Reducing factor of CO2 with GTE'85 + 
500 km and more  6 L / 100 km  8 L / 100 km  1 kWh / 100 km  5 L / 100 KM  8 € / 100 km  5 € / 100 km  6 €/ 100 km  2 
about 100 km  6.5 / 100 km  3.5 L / 100 km  7 kWh / 100 km  6 L / 100 km  9 € / 100 km  3 € / 100 km  6.5 € /100 km  4 
50 km and less  7 L / 100 km  <0.5 L / 100 km  18 kWh / 100 km  7 L / 100 km  9.5 € / 100 km  2.5 € / 100 km  7 € / 100 km  30 and more 
* Tariffs of January 2017 typically registered in France 
Electricity  E85 (ethanol mixed with gasoline until 85%)  Gasoline (RON9598) SP95, SP95E10, SP98 
Oil  Fuel Gasoil 
in €uros (€)  0,13 € / kWh  0,6 € / L  1,35 € / L  1,2 € / L 
Summary and comments in comparison to a 100% electric vehicle  
Emissions CO2 
The global
CO2 emissions are divided by about 2 for the
very long distances, aproximately by 4
on the trips of about
100 km, and by more than 30
for all the displacements under 50 km. That is very important.
In average with
the distributing hypotheses of distances 264033%, the CO2
emissions are collapsing by a factor more than 10.

Kilometric costs 
The
GOLF GTE 85 PLUS is offering some kilometric
costs in the interval between 2 and 5 € / 100 km*. If the
average driven distances are 100 km : 3
€ / 100 km ; it is 3
times better than
the same by burning classical gasoline. In any case, it has a
kilometric cost clearly lower than the Dieseloil, especially on the
short displacements. 
Comparison to a 100% electric vehicle 
La
GOLF GTE 85 PLUS has no problem of insufficient electric range or
failing electric load stations. Such a vehicle is much more versatile
and securing than a 100% electric car with the same advantages
(ecological and economic). It needs less than 10 minutes to be refilled
for 500 km of range. It also permits to tow some trailers / caravans
for long trips. 
About the towing by hybrid and electric vehicles 
The
Volkswagen Golf GTE 85 PLUS offers a retractable
harnessing ; it is
homologated to tow. This is rare for the hybrid vehicles,
and even more for 100% electric ones. Its power and the onboard fuel
are allowing serene travels.
