SYstems for COnversion of MOtions and REnewable ENergies
Sycomoreen's photovoltaic facilities FAQ
 Frequently asked questions 
OPALE is a Sycomoreen's exclusive intellectual property
Back to the FAQ's index | Retour à l'index des FAQ


xx/xx/2017 : Photovoltaic 2017 yields of the Sycomoreen's OPALE plants

xx/xx/2016 : Photovoltaic 2016 yields of the Sycomoreen's OPALE plants

xx/xx/2015 : Photovoltaic 2015 yields of the Sycomoreen's OPALE plants
01/03/2015 : What is the new Additional Plant for Energizing Productions from the Sun (APEPS) ?
15/02/2015 : What are the new 2015 purchasing tariffs of the photovoltaic energy in France ?

xx/xx/2014 : Photovoltaic 2014 yields of the Sycomoreen's OPALE plants

xx/xx/2013 : Photovoltaic 2013 yields of the Sycomoreen's OPALE plants
19/08/2013 : Very hot weather : why the yield of photovoltaic panels is declining ?
17/07/2013 : A new OPALE plant with positive energies (thermal + electric) with a bioclimatic garden ?
24/06/2013 : What is the cumulative production of all the OPALE solar plants since december 2009 ? More than 100 000 kWh !
09/05/2013 : What are the new 2013 purchasing tariffs of the photovoltaic energy in France ?
11/02/2013 : OPALE + Auvergne = Côte d'Azur

xx/xx/2012 : Photovoltaic 2012 yields of the Sycomoreen's OPALE plants
14/08/2012 : What are the new 2012 purchasing tariffs of the photovoltaic energy in France ?
06/05/2012 : Is there a residential OPALE prototype and what are its abilities ?
30/04/2012 : What are the new 2012 purchasing tariffs of the photovoltaic energy in France ?
02/04/2012 : What is the typical gain of OPALE at spring time, when the weather is cool, but sunny ?
13/02/2012 : How to repel the pest animals away from the OPALE photovoltaic solar plants ?
01/02/2012 : Can OPALE defrost the photovoltaic field and remove the snow from the solar roof ?

xx/xx/2011 : Photovoltaic 2011 yields of the Sycomoreen's OPALE plants
23/10/2011 : What are the new 2011 purchasing tariffs of the photovoltaic energy in France ? [Project]
18/07/2011 : What does the "OPALE" acronym mean through the technical and symbolic aspect ?
15/03/2011 : What are the new 2011 purchasing tariffs of the photovoltaic energy in France ? Addendum of 21/07/2011
05/03/2011 : What are the wintry performances 2010/2011 of the OPALE Barn ?

19/11/2010 : Contradictory debate at the Assemblée Nationale about the future of Photovoltaics
20/09/2010 : Booklet available on the photovoltaic issues and the last decisions taken in France
05/03/2010 : Some photovoltaics' big classics


xx/xx/2017_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 PHOTOVOLTAIC 2017 YIELDS OF THE SYCOMOREEN'S OPALE PLANTS

Description of the plant Sycomoreen2

Date of connection to the grid : 14/01/2011
Country / Department : France Puy-de-Dome (63)
Peak power : 9 450 Wc
Inverters : 2 SMA Sunny Boy 5000TL
Electrical wiring : 1 Phase AC 220V
Area : 75 m2
Module : 70 Kyocera FD135GH2P  Solrif integrated
Slope : 50°
Orientation : 0° South
Installers : Electricity Sycomoreen / Roof BADUEL
Description of the plant Sycomoreen



Date of connection to the grid : 07/12/2009
Country / Department : Auvergne Puy-de-Dome (63)
Peak power : 15 840 Wc
Inverters : 3 SMA Sunny Mini Central 6000A
Wiring : 3 phases AC 220V by star
Area : 144 m2
Modules : 288 Imerys PV rooftiles 55Wc 
Slope : 50°
Orientation : -20° South
Installers : Electricity Sycomoreen / Roof BADUEL
Proportional comparison between
OPALE on Sycomoreen2
 und OPALE on Sycomoreen

Photo of the place where the plants
are suited at 1200 m of altitude

Additional Plant for Energizing Productions from the Sun by SYCOMOREEN's Photovoltaics

DC Peak Power of the plant : 11,88 kWc
AC Peak Power of the plant : 9 kWc
Surface of the photovoltaic field : 85 m²
Panels : 54 modules ISSOL Cenit 220
Mounting system : Solrif by Schweizer
Inverters : 3 x SMA Sunny Boy 3000TL-21
                  3 phases AC220V by star

Energy loss according to the optimum :
 
4.16% source PVGIS


xx/xx/2016_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 PHOTOVOLTAIC 2016 YIELDS OF THE SYCOMOREEN'S OPALE PLANTS

Description of the plant Sycomoreen2

Date of connection to the grid : 14/01/2011
Country / Department : France Puy-de-Dome (63)
Peak power : 9 450 Wc
Inverters : 2 SMA Sunny Boy 5000TL
Electrical wiring : 1 Phase AC 220V
Area : 75 m2
Module : 70 Kyocera FD135GH2P  Solrif integrated
Slope : 50°
Orientation : 0° South
Installers : Electricity Sycomoreen / Roof BADUEL
Description of the plant Sycomoreen



Date of connection to the grid : 07/12/2009
Country / Department : Auvergne Puy-de-Dome (63)
Peak power : 15 840 Wc
Inverters : 3 SMA Sunny Mini Central 6000A
Wiring : 3 phases AC 220V by star
Area : 144 m2
Modules : 288 Imerys PV rooftiles 55Wc 
Slope : 50°
Orientation : -20° South
Installers : Electricity Sycomoreen / Roof BADUEL
Proportional comparison between
OPALE on Sycomoreen2
 und OPALE on Sycomoreen

Photo of the place where the plants
are suited at 1200 m of altitude

Additional Plant for Energizing Productions from the Sun by SYCOMOREEN's Photovoltaics

DC Peak Power of the plant : 11,88 kWc
AC Peak Power of the plant : 9 kWc
Surface of the photovoltaic field : 85 m²
Panels : 54 modules ISSOL Cenit 220
Mounting system : Solrif by Schweizer
Inverters : 3 x SMA Sunny Boy 3000TL-21
                  3 phases AC220V by star

Energy loss according to the optimum :
 
4.16% source PVGIS



xx/xx/2015_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 PHOTOVOLTAIC 2015 YIELDS OF THE SYCOMOREEN'S OPALE PLANTS

Description of the plant Sycomoreen2

Date of connection to the grid : 14/01/2011
Country / Department : France Puy-de-Dome (63)
Peak power : 9 450 Wc
Inverters : 2 SMA Sunny Boy 5000TL
Electrical wiring : 1 Phase AC 220V
Area : 75 m2
Module : 70 Kyocera FD135GH2P  Solrif integrated
Slope : 50°
Orientation : 0° South
Installers : Electricity Sycomoreen / Roof BADUEL
Description of the plant Sycomoreen



Date of connection to the grid : 07/12/2009
Country / Department : Auvergne Puy-de-Dome (63)
Peak power : 15 840 Wc
Inverters : 3 SMA Sunny Mini Central 6000A
Wiring : 3 phases AC 220V by star
Area : 144 m2
Modules : 288 Imerys PV rooftiles 55Wc 
Slope : 50°
Orientation : -20° South
Installers : Electricity Sycomoreen / Roof BADUEL
Proportional comparison between
OPALE on Sycomoreen2
 und OPALE on Sycomoreen

Photo of the place where the plants
are suited at 1200 m of altitude



01/03/2015_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
ADDITIONAL PLANT FOR ENERGIZING PRODUCTIONS FROM THE SUN (APEPS)

Additional Plant for Energizing Productions from the Sun by SYCOMOREEN's Photovoltaics

DC Peak Power of the plant : 11,88 kWc
AC Peak Power of the plant : 9 kWc
Surface of the photovoltaic field : 85 m²
Panels : 54 modules ISSOL Cenit 220
Mounting system : Solrif by Schweizer
Inverters : 3 x SMA Sunny Boy 3000TL-21
                  Compteur d'injection triphasé

Energy loss according to the optimum :
 
4.16% source PVGIS


15/02/2015_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 WHAT ARE THE NEW 2015 PURCHASING TARIFFS OF THE PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY IN FRANCE ?

The mechanism of indexation which is structurally for decrease regarding the tariffs of photovoltaic energy in France is applying again for the 1st quarter 2015. To notice that the bonus between 5 and 10% which was granted for the panels made in Europa has definitely been cancelled. Moreover beyond of 9 kWp, the proposed tariffs are dissuasive because they are near, and often  lower than the French grid parity (14 ct€/kWh). In the same way, an hazardous process of calls for offers is still managing the plants of more than 100 kWp while only selecting some producers who don't accept to sell at the T5 groundfloor-tariff if their project achieves some confused technical constraints. That system, has proven its inefficiency since more than one year. Globally, because of a jungle of tariffs and penalizing unsteady policies , the photovoltaic path in France is knowing a significant collaps since 2012 regarding the rate of grid-connected MWc / year.

Applicable tariffs for demands of grid-connection registered from the 1st quarter 2013 to the 1st quarter 2015

Purchasing tariffs of photovoltaic kWh solar energy in France until 1st quarter 2015
Source : photovoltaique.info             To see also : 09/05/2013                (available translations)

Applicable tariffs for demands of grid-connection registered from the 1st quarter 2013 to the 1st quarter 2015


Increase of the photovoltaic installed peak power (in MW) : yellow curve : total --- blue tower : installed MW/year in FRANCE
The Key-Numbers by photovoltaique.info


xx/xx/2014_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 PHOTOVOLTAIC 2014 YIELDS OF THE SYCOMOREEN'S OPALE PLANTS

Description of the plant Sycomoreen2

Date of connection to the grid : 14/01/2011
Country / Department : France Puy-de-Dome (63)
Peak power : 9 450 Wc
Inverters : 2 SMA Sunny Boy 5000TL
Electrical wiring : 1 Phase AC 220V
Area : 75 m2
Module : 70 Kyocera FD135GH2P  Solrif integrated
Slope : 50°
Orientation : 0° South
Installers : Electricity Sycomoreen / Roof BADUEL
Description of the plant Sycomoreen



Date of connection to the grid : 07/12/2009
Country / Department : Auvergne Puy-de-Dome (63)
Peak power : 15 840 Wc
Inverters : 3 SMA Sunny Mini Central 6000A
Wiring : 3 phases AC 220V by star
Area : 144 m2
Modules : 288 Imerys PV rooftiles 55Wc 
Slope : 50°
Orientation : -20° South
Installers : Electricity Sycomoreen / Roof BADUEL
Proportional comparison between
OPALE on Sycomoreen2
 und OPALE on Sycomoreen

Photo of the place where the plants
are suited at 1200 m of altitude



xx/xx/2013_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 PHOTOVOLTAIC 2013 YIELDS OF THE SYCOMOREEN'S OPALE PLANTS

Description of the plant Sycomoreen2

Date of connection to the grid : 14/01/2011
Country / Department : France Puy-de-Dome (63)
Peak power : 9 450 Wc
Inverters : 2 SMA Sunny Boy 5000TL
Electrical wiring : 1 Phase AC 220V
Area : 75 m2
Module : 70 Kyocera FD135GH2P  Solrif integrated
Slope : 50°
Orientation : 0° South
Installers : Electricity Sycomoreen / Roof BADUEL
Description of the plant Sycomoreen



Date of connection to the grid : 07/12/2009
Country / Department : Auvergne Puy-de-Dome (63)
Peak power : 15 840 Wc
Inverters : 3 SMA Sunny Mini Central 6000A
Wiring : 3 phases AC 220V by star
Area : 144 m2
Modules : 288 Imerys PV rooftiles 55Wc 
Slope : 50°
Orientation : -20° South
Installers : Electricity Sycomoreen / Roof BADUEL
Proportional comparison between
OPALE on Sycomoreen2
 und OPALE on Sycomoreen

Photo of the place where the plants
are suited at 1200 m of altitude



19/08/2013_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Very hot weather : why the yield of photovoltaic panels is declining ?

OPALE is a Sycomoreen's exclusive intellectual property
 is inviting you

to read this translated article

 taken from the Energeek
Garage Photovoltaïque OPALE par Sycomoreen


17/07/2013_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
A new OPALE plant with positive energies (thermal + electric) with a bioclimatic garden ?
One of the 3 inverters SMA Sunny Boy 3000 TL-21 while their mounting and wiring by SYCOMOREEN

A new story for OPALE by SYCOMOREEN Photovoltaics

the script of the video is available


24/06/2013_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What is the cumulative production of the OPALE plants ? More than 100 000 kWh
To go to the Sycomoreen's OPALE photovoltaic Dairy webpage To go to the Sycomoreen's OPALE photovoltaic Carport webpage To go to the Sycomoreen's OPALE photovoltaic Barn webpage

And other OPALE projects in progress...
32 207 kWh
7 112 kWh
62 666 kWh
OPALE prototype for roof  with medium size OPALE prototype for residential carport OPALE prototype for large photovoltaic fields
Started on 14th January 2011 Started on 20th April 2012 Started on 7th December 2009
OPALE is a Sycomoreen's exclusive intellectual property in Partnership withIn Partnership with the photovoltaic database (BDPV) Sycomoreen's photovoltaic facilities


09/05/2013_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 WHAT ARE THE NEW 2013 PURCHASING TARIFFS OF THE PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY IN FRANCE ?

The mechanism of indexation which is structurally for decrease regarding the tariffs of photovoltaic energy in France is applying again for the 2nd quarter 2013. To notice since the beginning of 2013 : a bonus between 5 and 10% which is granted for the panels made in Europa. However beyond of 9 kWp, the proposed tariffs are dissuasive beacause they are near, and often  lower than the French grid parity (12 ct€/kWh). In the same way, an heavy process of calls for offers is managing the plants of more than 100 kWp while only selecting some producers who accept to sell with even lower tariffs. Globally, the photovoltaic actors in France are strongly penalized.


Applicable tariffs for demands of grid-connection registered during the 2nd quarter 2013

tariff sell photovoltaic electricity second quarter 2013 France c€ / kWh
Source : Les-Energies-Renouvelables.eu             To see also : 14/08/2012                (available translations)


Applicable tariffs for demands of grid-connection registered during the 1st quarter 2013

tariff sell photovoltaic electricity first quarter 2013 France c€ / kWh


11/02/2013_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Optimisations Photovoltaïques Autonomes avec Liquides en Ecoulement par SYCOMOREEN + Auvergne = Côte d'Azur  
The OPALE plants of Sycomoreen takes place again in the Top 5 of the best electrosolar yields in Auvergne for January 2013   
En partenariat avec / in Partnership with / im Zusammenarbeit mit / En collaboracion con BDPV
Among the 2 OPALE plants "wide roofings", the Photovoltaic Dairy is distinctly remarkable and achieves exceptional performances: with a raw production of 1368 kWh / kWc, it signs a performance 21% greater than the average in Auvergne (1132 kWh/kWc), and even 1% better than one recorded in 2012 on the facilities from the French Riviera (1357 kWh / kWc). Last yearit was placed as the n°1 in Auvergne in raw production (Sycomoreen2: 1475 kWh / kWc).




xx/xx/2012_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 PHOTOVOLTAIC 2012 YIELDS OF THE SYCOMOREEN'S OPALE PLANTS

Description of the plant Sycomoreen2


Date of connection to the grid : 14/01/2011
Country / Department : France Puy-de-Dome (63)
Peak power : 9 450 Wc
Inverters : 2 SMA Sunny Boy 5000TL
Electrical wiring : 1 Phase AC 220V
Area : 75 m2
Module : 70 Kyocera FD135GH2P  Solrif integrated
Slope : 50°
Orientation : 0° South
Installers : Electricity Sycomoreen / Roof BADUEL
Description of the plant Sycomoreen

Date of connection to the grid : 07/12/2009
Country / Department : Auvergne Puy-de-Dome (63)
Peak power : 15 840 Wc
Inverters : 3 SMA Sunny Mini Central 6000A
Wiring : 3 phases AC 220V by star
Area : 144 m2
Modules : 288 Imerys PV rooftiles 55Wc 
Slope : 50°
Orientation : -20° South
Installers : Electricity Sycomoreen / Roof BADUEL
Proportional comparison between
OPALE on Sycomoreen2
 und OPALE on Sycomoreen

Photo of the place where the plants
are suited at 1200 m of altitude

close to the Mountains of Cézallier

More information about PVGIS


14/08/2012_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHAT ARE THE NEW 2012 PURCHASING TARIFFS OF THE PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY IN FRANCE ?

The new mechanism of indexation which is structurally for decrease regarding the tariffs of photovoltaic energy in France is applying again for the 2nd quarter 2012. During only 18 months, the T1 tariff has decreased of 30% ; T2, T3 and T4 of 64% ; T5 has weakened of 14%.

Source : Ministère de l'Economie, des Finances et de l'Industrie             To see also: 30/04/2012                
(available translations)
Tariffs of photovoltaic electricity in ct€ / kWh in France


06/05/2012_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 ITHERE A RESIDENTIAL OPALE PROTOTYPE AND WHAT ARE ITS ABILITIES ?

Sycomoreen has build a photovoltaic carport with the goal of technical experimentations on "small" residential OPALE from 1 to 6 kWp. Linked to the grid since April 2012, 20th, this solar plant has produced 330 kWh during 14 days (23,5 kWh/day). With a nice weather, this solar plant supplies about 4500 W ; this is enough in order to reload the CATHI van. The waited yearly production of 5500 kWh is balancing for example with renewable electricity all the consumption of a 100 m² dwelling for 4 people.
Garage Photovoltaïque OPALE par Sycomoreen

The OPALE photovoltaic Carport reloads the CATHI electric van by Sycomoreen


30/04/2012_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHAT ARE THE NEW 2012 PURCHASING TARIFFS OF THE PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY IN FRANCE ?

The new mechanism of indexation which is structurally for decrease regarding the tariffs of photovoltaic energy in France is applying again for the 2nd quarter 2012.

The decrease of the 2nd quarter in comparison with the first one is 4,5 % for the residential solar plants  (full integration on the roof) and 9,5 % for the not residential plants, or simple roofing integration . Since one year, these tariffs respectively have fallen of 19,45% and 32,9 %.

The opposite tariffs are valid for the requests to connect on the grid contracted between the 1st January and the 31th March 2012 or the 1st April to the 31 June 2012. For following events, new decreases are foreseeable.

During the 1st quarter 2012, the connected powers are quite weak with only 37,3 MWp on the residential plants and 102,4 MWp for the installations with simplified roofing integration.

Source : Actu-Environnement
to see also : 23/10/2012
(available translations)
Purchasing tariffs of photovoltaic electricity in France: 1st and 2nd quarters 2012 in c€ / kWh


02/04/2012_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 WHAT IS THE TYPICAL GAIN OF OPALE AT SPRING TIME, WHEN THE WEATHER IS COOL BUT SUNNY ?

The opposite movie shows the raw gain of power which is obtained by cooling the photovoltaic panels with water according to the automations achieved by OPALE. The climatic conditions  were :
- cool weather : (10°C) and soft wind (<10 km/h)
- Solar time : 13h30
- Orientation : South with slope of 50°.

On each inverter, the production is increasing from 3400W to 3900W :  500 W are won, either globally 1500 W, for an average pumping consumption of about 300 W. There is a factor 5 between the used energy to pump and the additional energy recovered by the photovoltaic field. The instanatenous power raises by 15%, and keeps to be 12% additional while subtracting the energy for the pump.

This experience demonstrates the relevance of OPALE even if the weather isn't scorching, because the panels are significantly heated only by the solar radiance ; for some very hot and sunny atmospheric conditions OPALE is much more efficient as the gain can reach until 20%, and even more...

Photovoltaic water cooling experience at Spring 2012 : +12% by Sycomoreen


13/02/2012_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
HOW TO REPEL THE PEST ANIMALS AWAY FROM THE OPALE PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR PLANTS ?

The Sycomoreen's plants are equipped with ultrasonic repelling devices 2 x 130 dB in order to protect the electric wire from the attacks of rodents and other pest animals.

The devices are supplied with an intermittent and cyclic manner: stop during about 8 minutes and continuous restart of about 8 minutes. Thus, the rodents are top stressed without acquiring a familiarization with the ultrasonic emissions. The power of each device is 2W and its annual consumption is about 9 kWh (less than 1€ in France).
timed relay to make work the ultrasonic repellers with an intermittent way

Ultrasonic pest repellers on the OPALE Plants par Sycomoreen


01/02/2012_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CAN OPALE DEFROST THE PHOTOVOLTAIC FIELD AND REMOVE THE SNOW FROM THE SOLAR ROOF ?

Overall
Photovoltaics with
Automated
Liquid
Enhancements

The pictures on the left show the action of OPALE used in the wintry mode to defrost the photovoltaic field and remove the snow from the Sycomoreen's photovoltaic roofs during the winter in order to increase the electric outputs..

These operations are made automatically with flowing liquids like water thanks to a set of sensors and automations outside and inside the buildings.

The Sycomoreen's OPALE plants stay in the Massif Central (FRANCE) at 1200 m of altitude and are actually facing falls of snow and intense cold (0°C and less). More information:
OPALE photovoltaic Barn
OPALE photovoltaic Dairy


xx/xx/2011_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 PHOTOVOLTAIC 2011 YIELDS OF THE SYCOMOREEN'S OPALE PLANTS

Description of the plant Sycomoreen2


Date of connection to the grid : 14/01/2011
Country / Department : France Puy-de-Dome (63)
Peak power : 9 450 Wc
Inverters : 2 SMA Sunny Boy 5000TL
Electrical wiring : 1 Phase AC 220V
Area : 75 m2
Module : 70 Kyocera FD135GH2P  Solrif integrated
Slope : 50°
Orientation : 0° South
Installers : Elektricity Sycomoreen / Roof BADUEL
Description of the plant Sycomoreen



Date of connection to the grid : 07/12/2009
Country / Department : Auvergne Puy-de-Dome (63)
Peak power : 15 840 Wc
Inverters : 3 SMA Sunny Mini Central 6000A
Wiring : 3 phases AC 220V by star
Area : 144 m2
Modules : 288 Imerys PV rooftiles 55Wc 
Slope : 50°
Orientation : -20° South
Installers : Electricity Sycomoreen / Roof BADUEL
Proportional comparison between
OPALE on Sycomoreen2
 und OPALE on Sycomoreen

Photo of the place where the plants
are suited at 1200 m of altitude

close to the Mountains of Cézallier

More information about PVGIS


23/10/2011_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHAT ARE THE NEW 2011 PURCHASING TARIFFS OF THE PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY IN FRANCE ?

The new mechanism of indexation which is structurally for decrease regarding the tariffs of photovoltaic energy in France is applying again in the set of the last quarter 2011.

The global demand to connect on the grid lasting the 3rd quarter 2011 entails significant decreases for the tariff of 4.5% regarding the solar plants on dwelling, teaching and medical buildings, and of 9.5% for the other plants.


The opposite tariffs are valid for the demands to connect on the grid contracted between the 1st October and the 31th December 2011. For following events, new decreases are foreseeable.

Deliberation du 20/10/2011 de la CRE [French]
Source : Photovoltaique.info [French]
Tariffs for photovoltaic kWh in France
To see also : 15/03/2011 the tariffs in c€/kWh (available translations) from 01/10/2011 to 31/12/2011 [project]


18/07/2011_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 WHAT DOES THE "OPALE" ACRONYM MEAN THROUGH THE TECHNICAL AND SYMBOLIC ASPECTS ?

On the technical side On the symbolic side
OPALE means :
Overall Photovoltaics with
Automated Liquid Enhancements
OPALE is a Sycomoreen's exclusive intellectual property

and has it some equivalent writings in  FrenchGerman and Spanish

The technical description of OPALE is available in the dedicated pages, and like the precious stone, OPALE leans on the combination of Silicium (from the photovoltaic panels) and of water (flowing liquid which improves the yields of it).
An opale is a precious stone made of hydrated silica with a SiO2,nH2O formula and some other vestigial minerals or metals. The content in water is usually seen between 3 and 9 %, it can reach 20% according to the types of Opale.

A black OPALE, precious stone made of silicium and water

Thus OPALE confounds itself with the methaphor of an alliance between Silicium and Water.



15/03/2011_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHAT ARE THE NEW 2011 PURCHASING TARIFFS OF THE PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY IN FRANCE ?

Voir les nouveaux tarifs d'achat du kWh sur Photovoltaïque Info
to divide by 10 to get the tariffs in c€/kWh (translations available)

these tariffs are valid for contracts signed between March 2011, 10th, and June 2011, 30th.
For following events, new decreases are foreseeable.



ADDENDUM 21/07/2011

Photovoltaic tariffs in c€/kWh for France from 07/01/2011 to 09/30/2011
any other plants : 11,688 c€/kWh. Source :  Enerzine


To read also :     News of the 19/11/2010            Site of information : Photovoltaïque.info



05/03/2011_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 WHAT ARE THE WINTRY PERFORMANCES 2010/2011 OF THE OPALE BARN ?

Photovoltaic Barn



Winter 2010/2011



February 2011 :
4th on 301 significant solar plants,
which are recorded in Auvergne on BDPV

January 2011 :
7th on 280 significant solar plants,
which are recorded in Auvergne on BDPV

December 2010 :
12th on 248 significant solar plants,
which are recorded in Auvergne on BDPV

November 2010 :
17th on 241 significant solar plants,
which are recorded in Auvergne on BDPV
The Sycomoreen's photovoltaic farm, Winter 2010
in Partnership withIn Partnership with the photovoltaic database (BDPV) Description of the project                         File BDPV of Sycomoreen


19/11/2010_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 CONTRADICTORY DEBATE AT THE ASSEMBLÉE NATIONALE ABOUT THE FUTURE OF PHOTOVOLTAICS
Addendum : News of the 04/12/2010
French Audio Video Content
Source Assemblé Nationale TV
Entirety of the registrations put on line November 16, 2010
entitled "Commission des affaires Economiques + Développement photovoltaïque"

One will can notably hear about the speeches of Misters Hadrien CLEMENT (APESI) and André JOFFRE (TECSOL)


Participants :
- Sir Christian JACOB, Chairman of the Commission du Développement Durable (CDD)
- Sir Serge POIGNANT, Vice-Chairman of the Commission des Affaires Economiques (CAE)
- Sir Philippe DE LADOUCETTE Chairman of the Comission de Régulation de l'Energie (CRE)
- Sir Paris MOURATOUGLOU, President of  EDF Energies Nouvelles (EDF-EN)
- Sir Hadrien CLEMENT, President of the Association des Producteurs d'Electricité Solaire Indépendants (APESI)
- Sir André JOFFRE, Président of TECSOL (see also the blog TECSOL)

And Ladies and Gentlemen the Deputies : BROTTE, GOUARD, DIONIS, CHANTEGUET, SAINT LEGER, LE DEAUT and PIRON, HAVARD, GAGNAIRE and LE NAY, NICOLAS, QUERE and COSYNS, MASSAT, PRORIOL and LABRETTE-MENAGER,.

Introduction of the debate with Christian JACOB, Pdt de la CDD

Sir Serge POIGNANT,Pdt de la Commission des Affaires Economiques

Sir Philippe DE LADOUCETTE, Pdt de la CRE

Sir Paris MOURATOUGLOU, Pdt de EDF Energies Nouvelles

Sir Hadrien CLEMENT, Pdt de l'APESI

Sir André JOFFRE, Pdt de TECSOL

Transition by Sir Christian JACOB, Pdt de la CDD

Asks of the Deputies BROTTE, GOUARD, DIONIS

Ask of the Deputy Paul CHANTEGUET

Answer of Sir Serge POIGNANT, Pdt de la CAE

Answer of Sir Philippe DE LADOUCETTE, Pdt de la CRE

Answer of Sir Hadrien CLEMENT, Pdt de l'APESI 

Answer of Sir André JOFFRE, Pdt de TECSOL

Answer of Sir Paris MOURATOUGLOU, Pdt de EDF-EN

Asks of the Deputies SAINT LEGER, LE DEAUT and PIRON

Asks of the Deputies HAGARD, GAGNAIRE and LE NAY

Asks of the Deputies NICOLAS, QUERE and COSYNS

Asks of the Deputies MASSAT, PRORIOL and LABRETTE-MENAGER

Answer of Sir Philippe LADOUCETTE, Pdt de la CRE

Answer of Sir Paris MOURATOUGLOU, Pdt de EDF-EN

Answer of Sir Hadrien CLEMENT, Pdt de l'APESI

Answer of Sir André JOFFRE, Pdt de TECSOL

End of the debate with Sir Serge POIGNANT, Pdt de la CDD
    Videos saved by :  Les installations solaires photovoltaiques de Sycomoreen


20/09/2010_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BOOKLET AVAILABLE ON THE PHOTOVOLTAIC ISSUES AND THE LAST DECISIONS TAKEN IN FRANCE

Yan can download the Sycomoreen's photovoltaic Booklet (pdf)

05/03/2010_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SOME PHOTOVOLTAICS' BIG CLASSICS


Photovoltaics and electric Energy

What do kW and kWh mean ?
In physics, one has to clearly distinguish the power, the time and the energy : we have Energy = Power x Time
No confusion between Energy and Power...
  The respective units are : the Joule (energy, J), the Watt (power, W) and the second (time, s)

  But for the consumptions of a house, it is usual to measure
     * the power in kilowatt (kW) with 1 kW = 1000 W,
     * and the time in hours (1h = 3600s).

The multiplication of the power in kW by the time counted in hours is an energy expressed in kilowatthour (kWh) : the role of the electricity meter is to measure in kWh the consumption or the production of this electric energy.

Note : one kWh, it is too 3 600 000 J = 3,6 MJ
What represents very concretely one kWh ?
It is the necessary energy to make shine a light of 100 W during 10h,
or to heat a oven of 1000 W four de 1000 W during one hour.
What is a kWc ? Solar fluxes AM 1.5 and AM 1.0
This is one kilowattcrete. One meets also the anglosaxon kWp (kilowatt peak). This is the peak power produced by a plant and this notion isn't specific to the photovoltaics.

But the notion of peak power has to be normalized, notably for the photovoltaic panels. Thus a 100 Wp panel (one hundred wattpeak) will supply a power of 100 W while respecting the following conditions:
- orientation orthogonal to the sun's rays, at a temperature of 25°C,
- exposed to a radiance AM1.5 : a solar flux of 1000 W/m² received on the ground after having crossed an air mass of 1,5 atmospheres (what reduces the flux and its spectral content (the colors))

Note : AM0 corresponds to the space radiance (1360 W/m², solar spectrum with zero absorption), AM1 to the solar radiance on the ground with the shortest crossing of the atmosphere (1000 W/m², solar spectrum with absorptions)
And the kWh/kWc ?
The kWh/kWc are giving the waited energy per installed kWc. In fact, this is a very imprecise notion because it depends both on the area where the plant is built, also on the working duration and on the weather. The notion of kWh/kWc is often the typical energy produced by a 1 kWc plant for one year.
Photovoltaic annual production in France expressed in kWh/kWp with optimal orientation and corrective factors
The kWh/kWc is evidently depending on the geographic area, but also on the orientation of the plant and on possible shadings. Therefore, while keeping to be the most rigorous, we should to talk about kWh/kWc/year with an optimal orientation and no shading.

The opposite array is showing the optimal kWh/kWc in France and the corrective factors to apply in the case of imperfect'orientation.

Note : there are plants with solar tracking (orientation follows the sun's motion and is always optimal) which increases by 30% the kWh/kWc in comparison with the production of ideally inclined static panels.

Note bis : some data for Belgium (in French)
And the kWc/m² ?
The kWp /m² give the peak power waited by installing 1 m² of photovoltaic panels. One takes place again in the normalized conditions for the peak power and the criterias for optimal exposure of the kWh/kWp.

The solaro electric outputs are slowly raising and one admits that for panels mounted with their frames, it requires about :
- 7 to 10 m² of cristalline modules (mono ou polycristalline) to get 1 kWp,
- 11 to 13 m² of thin film cells (CCM ou thin film)
- 16 to 20 m²  amorphous
modules to get 1 kWc, 

In other words :
- between 100 to 140 Wc/m² for Silicium cristalline panels (with the advantage for the monocristalline cells)
between 75 to 90 Wc/m² for the modules with thin film (or CCM : cellules à couches minces)
between 50 to 65 Wc/m² for the amorphous panels.

There are "record" outputs of laboratory, much higher, but in general, it breaks the reliability and increases dramatically the cost. Moreover they are often obtained by keeping artificial conditions and are not on the market.

Note : the last (2010) solaro-electric outputs of manufactured panels and computed for the real surfaces of productive photovoltaic materials are typically 20% for the monocristalline panels, 16% for the polycristalline, 6 to 10% for the thin films and 4 to 7% for the amorphous modules.
Is the photovoltaic electricity adapted for the ways of consuming energy ?
Photovoltaic field of solar panels  The solar energy is intermittent, but it also respects the days / night cycles of the demand in electricity. Thus, it is not fundamentally incompatible with the human activities, even economic or industrial.

  However there isn't a definitive answer to give. One has to consider 2 types of energies :
* The "on demand" energies : available at any time in any wanted quantity. These are essentially the chemical energies of combustions with hydrocarbons (wood, biomass, coal, gas, petroleum, hydrogen...), the stored energies (hydraulics, pneumatics...) or much rarer the thermal natural energies (geothermy, thermal energy from the seas/oceans)
* The "not on demand" energies : more or less
temporally foreseeable and in non chosen quantity (nuclear, wind, tides...), they require to be immediately consumed or stored for an ulterior consumption. The electric grid and its management

 The balance of the electric grid ( production=demand ) entails a complex management and heavy investments granted by the big national providers of electricity : in France, it is d'EDF RTE (Electricité De France / Réseau de Transport de l'Electricité) which has the monopole about it. There are even agreements on international regulation of the grids because synergies generally appear through the temporal, geographic and energetic diversity or the different sources.


Among the "not on demand" energies, the photovoltaic electricity doesn't bring serious problem. It is often injected on the grid and/or locally autoconsumed (with in line losts nearly zero). It has the incontestable asset to be accessible anywhere for everybody, and if necessary easy to store with low cost batteries of accumulators (for example : plomb/acid) and with great environmental advantages.

Photovoltaics and natural Risks

Can a thunderbolt destroy a solar plant ?
The thunderboltOf course, a thunderbolt can destroy a solar installationThunderbolts' statistics in France. Nevertheless one has to notice that a photovoltaic solar plant has no influence about the probability (1 à 4 occurences / 10 000 for a house of 100 m²) that a thunderbolt hits the building (see opposite). On the contrary, the thunderbolt induces overvoltages and super amperic currents against whom it is possible to fight efficiently :

 1) to build the wiring of the panels with small surfacic loops of current,
 2) to foresee devices for anti-overvoltage to protect the inverters,
 3) to take care about the connections towards the earth for the entire plant.

Close to the photovoltaic field, the presence of lonely high trees, a fortiori the build of a lightning conductor is to avoid.

It is also advised to assure the photovoltaic installation with a contract
which multiriskly protects the dwelling.

Do the modules resist against the hailstones ?
The haily events with hailstones of more of 4 cm in France 1989-2006The modules have generally been designed according the IEC 61215 norm (cristalline) or 61646 (thin film) to be sold in France. This norm defines many mechanical physicochemical resistances for the panels, of which a faculty to support strong and moderate hails.

The panels achieving the IEC 61215 or IEC 61646 faced with success the simultaneous impacts of 11 hailstones of diameter 25 mm thrown vertically at 80 km / h against the panel.

Other tests are made with iceballs until to 75 mm of diameter or higher speeds until 140 km/h, but the shocks combining the highest speeds and masses can pass the limits of the panel. The IEC61215 panels resist hail in general better that of the tiles in terra-cotta.

The risk of violent hail is statistically a lot weaker than the risk of the thunderbolt. Although if it takes place, it is very difficult to preserve the photovoltaic field. Here is
opposite a map of the violent hail events in France. The most exposed areas are Aquitaine and the South / West of the Massif Central.
Source Observatoire Méteo en Provence by Eric Brun

To increase the slope (50° and more) of the photovoltaic system is favorable t
o fight against the impacts because the hailstone rebounds on the field while keeping the essential of its energy which will be going to vanish on the ground. On the other hand, to increase this slope is unfavorable for the solar production, and one often cannot choose the slope of the roof. Like for the thunderbolt, an insurance is strongly recommended for the haily risk.
What happens in case of shut down of the electric grid ?
No more electricity.The tension of wires coming from the network can disappOperators for the grid's maintenanceear in case of maintenance or failure of the grid. In this case, the inverters lose their synchronization and automatically switch off. Thus the solar energy is not converted anymore in electricity thanks to an internal unplugging organ inside the inverters (in accordance with the requirements of EDF concerning security of goods and people). It allows operators of EDF to repair the lines in the absence of "electric islands", that is to say without local and unknown injections of electricity. When the the tensions come back, the inverters resets themselves and the production takes place again in optimal and secured conditions.

Note : it means that in case of shut-down of the grid, a classic photovoltaic installation is not of any help. However, some specific inverters exists, or additional devices that permit to recreate a local wire under tension inside the the system and to inject the energy solely in the network of the house even in case breakdown of the outside grid. The overcost of this option and its very rare use make that it is hardly ever not chosen.

Window and deposit of smudges
Has the photovoltaic field to be regularly cleaned up ?
The cleaning of the panels is not obligatory, but it is absolutely necessary to maximize the production. It is indeed necessary to know that the serial connection of the photovoltaic panels (called "strings") make that the weak link of the string imposes its current to the others even though all the other panels are stronger (analogy with the mechanical strength of a chain limited by its weakest link). Therefore, the panels are sorted out by power while manufacturing and the tolerance is strict enough so that a weak panel doesn't slow down any more powerful panels.

This precaution guarantees almost-identical panels once delivered and mounted up, except if one of them comes to be clogged. In fact if its individual power lowers 15%, the whole chain where it is will also lower 15% even though the other panels of the string are perfectly clean !

The clogging of the panels comes from 4 main causes principales :
- the artificial dusts : atmospheric pollution, particles of soot, of tires, asphalt...
- the natural dusts : biomass particles, dust of earth, sand or stone,
- the adhesive inorganic deposits: the limestone, various chemical solid adherences,
- the adhesive organic deposits: mosses, lichens (rare), various excrements (frequent)...

well cleaned polycristalline receptorIn France, the natural precipitations of soft water make that the cleaning of the dusts is good enough without intervention. But in some very exposed areas (sandy rains of the Sahara, polluted cities, sea coasts, proximity of dusty activities (mine, stones' extraction, heavy industry, highways, agriculture...), it will be preferable to achieve a cleaning with soft water, or even slightly acidic to dissolve the deposits inorganic, or slightly alcoholic to dissolve the organic deposits. Cleaning can make itself by flowing, or by rubbing with a perch / scraper and a adequat liquid, both can be combined. The frequency of cleanings can be monthly, yearly, multi-yearly according to the observation of the state of surface of the panels : it has to be done case by case... A decrease of the electric production is often the sign of a clogging.

Notes :
- In the regions where water is chalky, it is
strongly advised not to use this water for cleaning. It is also advised not to walk on the panels.
- The OPALE system keeps the cleanliness of the panels all the year while recovering the rainwater in a cistern for various goals.

Photovoltaics and Cycle of lifeThe cycle of life of an industrial product

Are the solar photovoltaic panels recyclable ?
All components of the photovoltaic solar panels are recyclable. It is about separating the structures in alloy of aluminum of the photovoltaic parts. Then, metals are separated by physico-chemical processes to manufacture some new products, notably containing sicilicium.
How long will work my photovoltaic plant ?
Except for the violent destructions (climatic disaster, fire...), the life span of a photovoltaic panel is at least 3 decades. The panel is a component without any mobile parts with very protected solderings from the inclemencies and the corrosion. The ageing natural of the frames made in rustproof alloy and the glasses is very slow, probably slower than for a roofing in tiles, and it doesn't have consequence on the electric working. About the inverters, their typical life span is from 10 to 20 years.
The life of a photovoltaic panel
Do the photovoltaic modules lose their power while aging ?
The panels are submitted to cycles of temperatures, of hygrometries, of physico-chemical aggressions foreseen by the IEC61215 norm. Thus the solaroelectric output decreases. But the manufacturers impose to their panels some accelerated ageing tests and the electric performances maintain themselves remarkably because they generally grant :
* at least 90% of the initial performance at the end of 10 years
* at least 80% of the initial performance at the end of 25 years
* in case of breakdown, the free supply of replacement modules during 20 years.
What is the carbon balance of the photovoltaic panels ?
energetic investment payback time of the photovoltaicsAs all manufactured product, a photovoltaic panel imposes to consume some hydrocarbons (oil, coal, gas) for its manufacture, its installation and its retraining/recycling. The carbon balance of a photovoltaic panel is always very positive, in other words, the energy that it produces permits to save a quantity of hydrocarbons much bigger than the necessary hydrocarbons' quantity during its cycle of life. One argues here in "CO2 Payback time" or time of return on carbon investment. The most recent surveys (2005/2010) studied by the ADEME and Hespul for the account of the International Agency of Energy (IEA) show that in France, this back time doesn't pass 4 years even for panels placed in facade in Paris.

Photovoltaics and other ways to convert solar energies

The solar energy is an energy radiative covering 10 000 times the human needs. One can exploit it according to various methods depending on the sought-after goal. 3 ways essentially exist :
- the thermal solar panels intended to the get sanitary hot water, with different variants,
- the photovoltaic panels to produce electricity with efficiency of 10 to 20%, also with different variants,
- the solar thermodynamics for the solar electricity with high output (20% and more) that requires the concentration of light, there are also varied technological choices in this domain.

Let notice that there are marginal ways of research hybridizing the luminous concentration and the photovoltaic cells  for example, or mixed solar panels (electricity + hot water)..

The photovoltaics stays the only technology which can produce electricity from the diffuse solar radiance (when the sky is cloudy). But for very sunny countries, the direct solar radiance can valorized with a better output with the concentrating solar thermodynamics : one will find here some precisions about these topics.

Photovoltaics and technologies

Can one plug and install himself any panels on any inverter ?
The answer is clearly No. Every solar plant is specific and require a survey. Expertises in photovoltaic engineering (that Sycomoreen  has) are necessary to size and to wire an installation in an optimal manner. Every case is to study with a great care : surface of the roofing, slant of the roof, environment of the installation, output of the panels, limit of the inverters, budget... In the same way, the installation requires expertises in framework / roofing and in electricity. Some photovoltaic administrative recognitions exist in France for the craftsmen carpenters and electricians about solar photovoltaics (QualiPV, QualiSol...).
What are the monocristalline, polycristalline, thin film and amorphous modules ?

There are currently 4 industrialized technologies on the market :
silicium monocristalline cell
1) The Monocristalline Silicium

While cooling, the melted silicium becomes solid by creating only one big sized crystal. Then the monocrystal is cut in fine slices that will give the cells. These cells appear in general with an uniform, intense and brilliant blue. They are used, but are not the most chosen, on the market of the photovoltaic energy.

Advantages : the best output, de 15% à 20% , the best ratio 
Wc/m² (until 180 Wc/m2) , life span of over 30 years.
 
Drawbacks :high cost, mediocre rate power/price, often rounded corners of the cell (lost of productive surface), the output decreases significantly with heat. Important grey energy (it requires a very pure silicium).

Applications : those where the top criteria is the electric power with minimal clutter : space probe, terrestrial plants with limited area and/or for high budget...


silicium polycristalline cell2) The Polycristalline Silicium (or multicristalline)

While the cooling the silicon in a ingoting device, it forms several crystals. The photovoltaic cell gets a blue aspect, but not uniform ; one distinguishes geometric shapes created by the different crystals which join themselves to form an intense blue with multiple reflections. They are used very extensively on the market of the photovoltaic energy.

Advantages :good life span over 30 years, square cell allowing a perfect paving on the module, diffuse radiance better converted into electricity, good output (12 à 16% and about 140 
Wc/m²), ingot much less expensive to produce than the monocristalline which give the best rate power/price.

Drawbacks : lower output with weak lighting or heat.

Applications : those where the top criteria is the rate power/price : houses, photovoltaic plants, ground facilities with quite limited space...

Cell with thin film of Cuivre Indium Selenium (CIS)
3) The cells with thin film without Silicium (CCM or "Thin film")

These cells represent the new generation of solar cells as thin films, of type copper-indium-selenium (CIS) or Cadmium Tellurium (CdTe). Nowadays, the raw materials necessary to the manufacture these cells are easier to obtain than silicium used in the classic photovoltaic cells. Besides, their efficiency of energizing conversion is the best among the technologies to thin layer.

Advantages : medium output of the thin films CIS or CdTe in comparison with the amorphous thin films with Silicium ; allows not to need silicium, possibly flexible panels

Drawbacks : Because of a quite weak output, (6 to 10% and roughly 80 Wc/m²), the thin film cells (0.01 mm) require a wider area to attempt the same power as the thick cells (0.2 mm) that they are poly or monocristallines.

Applications : those where the top criteria is the rate price/Wc while worrying a little about the powere/m² and without to be limited by the surface. Roofs of factory and supermarket, installation on the ground with big areas.

Note : the thin film research without Silicium is active and other combinations metals/semi-conductors will be used (Gallium, Indium, Phospore, Arsenic, Germanium...). Another way is the cristalline silicium in thin film while hoping to get the advantages of the 2 technologies without the drawbacks...

silicium amorphous cell4) The Silicium cells with amorphous thin films(CCM Si  "Thin film Si")

The Silicium while transforming produces a gas which is projected on a leaf of glass. The cell is gray very dark or brown with a mat aspect. It is the cell of the "solar" calculators and watches (in fact it reloads a chemical accu).

Advantages :  Working with low radiance, quite good in diffuse light, low cost in comparison to other types of, less sensitive to the high temperatures, possibly flexible panels.

Drawbacks : Very weak output (4 à 7% and roughly 60 Wc/m²), the thin film cells require a more important area to get the same productions as the thick cells, short life span (+/- 10 ans), performances which meaningfully decrease with time.

Applications : those where the top criteria is the rate price/Wc without wondering about power/m² or being limited in space. Very used for portable electronics or for the low cost solar plants with big areas.
Flexible photovoltaic receiver with amorphous silicium
Note : the research is active too and is trying to combine several technologies : multilayers cells (ou multi junctions) to better convert each color of the solar spectrum. But it entails difficulties to manufacture and the solaro electric output often stays at 30% in the laboratory.






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